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The Uridine, with the CAS registry number 58-96-8 and EINECS registry number 200-407-5,  is a kind of white to slightly off-white powder,The molecular formula of the chemical is C9H12N2O6. What’s more, it is a major material of some drugs, such as S-FC, IDUR, BDUR, etc. And it can be prepared by 2,4 – dichloro-(trimethylsiloxy) pyrimidine.

The Uridine is one of the four basic components of RNA, and plays a role in the glycolysis pathway of galactose. There is no catabolic process to metabolize galactose. Therefore, galactose is converted to glucose and metabolized in the common glucose pathway.

1. The physical properties of Uridine

Name:Uridine

EINECS:200-407-5

Molecular Formula:C9H12N2O6

CAS Registry Number:58-96-8

Appearance:white to off-white crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:244.2

Density:1.674 g/cm3

Melting Point:165-170℃

Alpha:8.4 o (C=2,WATER)

Storage Temperature:Keep Cold

Refractive index:9 ° (C=2, H2O)

Solubility:Appearance:white to off-white crystalline powder

Transport Information:HAZARD

Hazard Symbols:UN NO.

Usage:Nitrogen base used in rna.

2. Uridine in the Glycolysis Pathway

Uridine plays a role in the glycolysis pathway of galactose.There is no catabolic process to metabolize galactose. Therefore, galactose is converted to glucose and metabolized in the common glucose pathway. Once the incoming galactose has been converted into galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P), it is involved in a reaction with UDP-glucose, a glucose molecule bonded to a UDP (uridine-di-phosphate) molecule. This process is catalyzed by the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase, and transfers the UDP to the galactose molecule. The end result is a UDP-galactose molecule and a glucose-1-phosphate molecule. This process is continued to allow the proper glycolysis of the galactose molecule.

3. Personal protective equipment

1)Eye/face protection

Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

2)Skin protection

Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique (without touching glove’s outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands.

The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

3)Body Protection

Choose body protection in relation to its type, to the concentration and amount of dangerous substances, and to the specific work-place., The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.

4)Respiratory protection

Respiratory protection is not required. Where protection from nuisance levels of dusts are desired, use type N95 (US) or type P1 (EN 143) dust masks. Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or CEN (EU).

You should be cautious while dealing with this chemical. It irritates to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Therefore, you had better take the following instructions: Do not breathe dust and avoid contacting with skin and eyes; Wear suitable protective clothing, and in case of contacting with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.

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Uridine, a nucleoside, contains an uracil attached to a ribose ring (known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. If uracil is attached to a deoxyribose ring, it is known as a deoxyuridine.

1. Discription of Uridine

Uridine is a Ribonucleoside, which are the building blocks for both RNA and DNA. Uridine is one of the four essential components of RNA (ribonucleic acid), and is absorbed within the intestinal tract. Studies have shown that supplementation of Uridine along with Choline and fish oil increases synaptic formation and function, showing improvement in persons suffering from mild Alzheimer’s Disease. This nootropic may increase or raise dopmaine levels within the brain.

2. Uridine in food

Uridine(CAS.NO:58-96-8) can be found in many foods such as tomatoes, beer, and breast milk. Uridine can bypass the blood brain barrier effectively by one of two neuro transporters known as equilibrative and concentrative. Uridine also when administered orally causes a production of CDP-choline.

3. How Does Uridine Work?

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) plays an critical role in brain function by helping cells operate and regulate enzymes, and it is Uridine that increases its synthesis. According to a recent university study, when Uridine is supplemented with a choline source (such as Alpha GPC), phosphatidylcholine synthesis was shown to increase up to 45%.

Uridine may also increases the production of neurites, which are projections from the cell body of a neuron (such as axons where signals leave a neuron and dendrites where neurons receive signals). The more neurites a brain has equates to increased connections and neural signalling, and thereby, increased cognitive abilities.

Evidence also suggests that Uridine may play a role in increasing the neurotransmitter dopamine, often involved in the reward and pleasure centers of the brain. Higher levels of dopamine can result in improved mood, energy, focus and motivation. It is commonly though that these properties attribute to Uridines anti-depressant & anxiolytic properties

Uridine is also converted to CDP Choline in the brain, thereby increasing the synthesis of Acetylcholine (ACh). Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter involved in synaptic plasticity (the brain’s ability to form, strengthen, weaken, or destroy connections between neurons), which translates to a greater working memory and fluid intelligence.


4. Safety and Side Effects of Uridine

Uridine is a generally well-tolerated and safe nootropic. In one 48 week study conducted to view the effects of uridine treatment on HIV lipoatrophy, 165 subjects were given supplementation that contained uridine; only three of the participants dropped out due to diarrhea (conditions that did not persist after supplementation ceased). Uridine Uridine may lower levels of Vitamine B12, which can easily be avoided by taking vitamin B12 supplements.

5. Possible Uridine Benefits

*Enhance Mood

*Reduced Stress, Anxiety & OCD Symtoms

*Enhanced Learning and Memory

*Improved Fluid Intelligence

*Modulating/Normalising Dopamine Levels

*Improved Lipid Membrane Health

6. Uridine Dosage

The recommended dosage of Uridine is usually 500-1000 mg per day, taken as 250 mg individual dosages, two in the morning one in the afternoon and a final dose in the evening. This nootropic supplement is sold in capsule, tablet and powder form.

Uridine is a crystalline pyrimidine nucleoside C9H12N2O6 that is composed of uracil attached to ribose, that is derived by hydrolysis from nucleic acids, and that in the form of phosphate derivatives plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism.

Uridine is one of the four basic components of ribonucleic acid (RNA); the other three are adenosine, guanosine, and cytidine.

Name:Uridine

EINECS:200-407-5

Molecular Formula:C9H12N2O6

CAS Registry Number:58-96-8

InChI:InChI=1/C9H12N2O6/c12-3-4-6(14)7(15)8(17-4)11-2-1-5(13)10-9(11)16/h1-2,4,6-8,12,14-15H,3H2,(H,10,13,16)/t4-,6-,7-,8-/m1/s1

Appearance:white to off-white crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:244.2

Density:1.674 g/cm3

Melting Point:165-170℃

Alpha:8.4 o (C=2,WATER)

Storage Temperature:Keep Cold

Refractive index:9 ° (C=2, H2O)

Solubility:Appearance:white to off-white crystalline powder

Transport Information:HAZARD

Hazard Symbols:UN NO

MSDS:View

Usage:Nitrogen base used in rna

Hazard Codes: Xi

Risk Statements: 36/37/38

Safety Statements :24/25-36-26

WGK Germany:3

RTECS:YR1450000

F:10

Hazard Note:Keep Cold

Uridine, a nucleoside, contains an uracil attached to a ribose ring (known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. If uracil is attached to a deoxyribose ring, it is known as a deoxyuridine.

Uridine(CAS.NO:58-96-8) is a crystalline pyrimidine nucleoside C9H12N2O6 that is composed of uracil attached to ribose, that is derived by hydrolysis from nucleic acids, and that in the form of phosphate derivatives plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism.

Uridine is one of the four basic components of ribonucleic acid (RNA); the other three are adenosine, guanosine, and cytidine. Some foods that contain uridine in the form of RNA are listed below. However virtually none of the uridine in this form is bioavailable, since – as shown by Handschumacher’s Laboratory at Yale Medical School in 1981  – it is destroyed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and no food, when consumed, has ever been reliably shown to elevate blood uridine levels. In infants consuming mothers’milk or commercial infant formulas, uridine is present as its monophosphate, UMP, and this source of uridine is indeed bioavailable  and enters the blood.

*Sugarcane extract

*Tomatoes (0.5 to 1.0 g uridine per kilogram dry weight)

*Brewer’s yeast (1.7% uridine by dry weight)

*Beer

*Broccoli

*Offal (liver, pancreas, etc.)

Consumption of RNA-rich foods may lead to high levels of purines (adenosine and guanosine) in blood. High levels of purines are known to increase uric acid production and may aggravate or lead to conditions such as gout. Moderate consumption of yeast, about 5 grams per day, should provide adequate uridine for improved health with minimal side effects.

Note: It has been suggested that the RNA content of yeast products should be chemically reduced if these products are to be consumed in high amounts (50 grams or more per day) as a source of protein. However, such processing is expensive and, as of 2008, commonly available brewer’s yeast products were not RNA-reduced.

Beer seems to be a great source of uridine, relatively speaking,

Whereas a significant DNA and RNA content (possibly indicative of some Uridine content) has been noted in.

Liver (Pig and Beef) at 2.12-2.3% for beef and 3.1-3.5% for pig (RNA) and 1.7-2% for beef and 1.4-1.8% for pig (DNA); all dry weight

Pancreas, the largest source of RNA at 6.4-7.8% (pig) and 7.4-10.2% (beef)

Lymph Nodes, the largest source of DNA at 6.7-7.0% (pig) and 6.7-11.5% (beef)

Fish at 0.17-0.47% (RNA) and 0.03-0.1% (DNA), with Herring having the highest RNA at 1.53%

Baker’s Yeast (6.62% RNA, 0.6% DNA)

Mushrooms; Boletus at 1.9-2.4% RNA, Champignon at 2.05% RNA, and Chestnut at 2.1% RNA all with minute (0.06-0.1%) DNA

Broccoli at 2.06% RNA and 0.51% DNA

Oats at 0.3% RNA with no detectable DNA

Chinese Cabbage, Spinach, and Cauliflower with similar levels at 1.5% RNA and 0.2-0.3% DNA

Parsley at 0.81% RNA and 0.27% DNA

Organ meats and, surprisingly, Cruciferous vegetables appear to generally have a high RNA and DHA content which insinuates they have a Uridine content

Ingestion of beer at 10mL/kg can increase serum Uridine levels 1.8-fold, which is similar levels at supplemental intake of the same uridine dosage (0.05mg/kg); Alcohol content does not influence absorption and urinary levels of Uridine increased by similar degrees. Uridine in beer does not appear to be causative of the increases seen in Uric Acid after beer consumption,and inhibiting Uric Acid synthesis with Allopurinol does not appear to influence the serum levels of Uridine achieved via beer.