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Curcumin is a diarylheptanoid. It is the principal curcuminoid of the popular South Asian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Turmeric’s other two curcuminoids are desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin. The curcuminoids are natural phenols that are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in several tautomeric forms, including a 1,3-diketo form and two equivalent enol forms. The enol form is more energetically stable in the solid phase and in solution.

Curcumin(CAS.NO:458-37-7) is a a water soluble orange-yellow coloured powder. Curcumin is one of three curcuminoids of turmeric. The other two curcuminoids are demethoxycurcumin and bisde methoxy curcumin.

1. Health Benefits of Curcumin
Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae).

Curcumin can be used for boron quantification in the so-called curcumin method. It reacts with boric acid forming a red colored compound, known as rosocyanine.

Curcumin is brightly yellow colored and may be used as a food coloring. As a food additive, its E number is E100 .

Curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal actions. Studies have shown that curcumin is not toxic to humans. Curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play an important role in inflammation. Turmeric is effective in reducing post-surgical inflammation. Turmeric helps to prevent atherosclerosis by reducing the formation of bloods clumps.

Curcumin inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastric ulcers and has been linked with gastric cancers.

Curcumin can bind with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, thereby reducing the toxicity of these heavy metals. This property of curcumin explains its protective action to the brain. Curcumin acts as an inhibitor for cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and glutathione S-transferase.

2. Side effect of Curcumin
Unfortunately, not all the evidence on curcumin suggests positive results. While it may fight colon cancer, it may also be a carcinogen, according to a 2005 medical study. This particular study suggests that the way in which curcumin acts means one can reasonably infer that it could also be responsible for cell damage elsewhere in the body. There is still little evidence about what degree of risk it might pose as a carcinogen.

It is known that the human body does not absorb very much curcumin when it is consumed. However, the body may not need to absorb it in order to derive benefits from it. When taken with black pepper, as it very well might be in Indian food, the substance is better absorbed and shows higher levels in people’s blood serum.

 

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2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid, its cas register number is 4065-45-6. It also can be called Sulisobenzone (benzophenone-4) ; 2-Benzoyl-5-methoxy-1-phenol-4-sulfonic acid ; Spectra-Sorb UV 284 ; Uvistat 1121 ; 1-Phenol-4-sulfonic acid, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxy- (6CI) ; 5-Benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid .It is a white to yellowish powder. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid is an ingredient in some sunscreens which protects the skin from damage by UVB and short-wave UVA ultraviolet light

1. Properties
Name:2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid

EINECS:223-772-2

Molecular Formula:C14H12O6S

CAS Registry Number:4065-45-6

InChI:InChI=1/C14H12O6S/c1-20-12-8-11(15)10(7-13(12)21(17,18)19)14(16)9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-8,15H,1H3,(H,17,18,19)

Molecular Structure:2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid C14H12O6S

Molecular Weight:308.3

Density:1.449 g/cm3

Boiling Point:0°C

Melting Point:170°C

Flash Point:0°C

Solubility:1 g dissolves in 2 mL methanol, 3.3 mL ethanol, 4 mL water, 100mL ethyl acetate.

In water, 2.5X10+5 mg/L at 25 deg C
2. Safety Profile
Hazard Codes: IrritantXi

Risk Statements: 36/37/38

R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.

Safety Statements: 26-36-37/39-36/37/39-27

S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.

S36:Wear suitable protective clothing.

S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.

S27:Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.

WGK Germany: 1

RTECS: DB5044300
1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is a new solvent that is effective in dissolving fats, waxes and resins. Two of its main uses are in degreasing agents and in spray adhesives. 1-BP is being used in the furniture industry and as a solvent for adhesives used in constructing foam cushions. The dry cleaning industry, among others, has considered using 1-BP as a replacement for other organic solvents that damage the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere.
Primarily used as a solvent for fats, waxes, or resins and in some spray adhesives and aerosol propellant applications. Also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, insecticides, quarternary ammonium compounds, flavors and fragrances.
1-Bromopropane(CAS.NO:106-94-5) enters your body when you breathe its vapor or drops of spray in the air .Some can enter your body through your skin.
 your risk of health effects depends on the amount of 1-Bromopropane that enters your body. That depends mainly on the amount of 1-Bromopropane in the air,your skin contact,and how long you are exposed.
1-Bromopropane can harm both the nervous system and the reproductive system. It can damage the nervous system by interfering with nerve conduction, resulting in limb weakness, pain, numbness, and paralysis. It can cause reduced fertility and/or sterility in test animals, both male and female, and it can harm the developing fetus in pregnant female test animals. It will soon be tested to find out if it can cause cancer, as many similar chemicals do. Other harmful effects include irritation of the eyes and skin.
1-Bromopropane enters your body when you breathe its vapor or drops of spray in the air. It can also enter through your skin and cause significant problems, depending on the concentration of 1-BP in the air, your skin contact and exposure time. The toxic effects of 1-bromopropane in humans have not yet been well studied. Because it is a recently introduced chemical, most information comes from animal testing and not from experience with human use. In most of the animal tests, the animals were exposed to 1-bromopropane by breathing it in the air. The following outlines health effects that have been studied.
1. Reproductive System
1-Bromopropane damages the reproductive systems in both male and female animals. In males, it damages the sperm, testicles, prostate, epididymis and seminal vesicles and reduces testosterone levels, causing sterility. In females, it damages the ovaries and interferes with the estrous cycle, again causing sterility. 1-Bromopropane also caused delayed growth in the offspring of animals exposed during pregnancy.
Some of these effects were seen at exposure levels as low as 200 ppm in the air, and possibly even at 100 ppm. The reproductive toxicity of 1-bromopropane has not been studied in humans, but 2-bromopropane, a closely related chemical, has been found to cause long-lasting ovarian failure and absence of sperm in workers.
2. Nervous System
1-Bromopropane damages the nerves in the arms, legs and body. There is evidence that 1-bromopropane may also damage the brain. Animal tests have found these effects with exposures as low as 400 ppm. Case reports show that similar effects can occur in humans.
3. Eyes, Nose, Throat and Skin
1-Bromopropane is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat at exposure levels of perhaps 30 ppm. Like other organic solvents, the liquid can dissolve the natural protective oils on skin and cause dermatitis (dry,rough, red, cracked skin).
4. Liver
Very high exposures may harm the liver. It is not known whether exposure levels likely to be found in the workplace present any risks to the liver.
5. Cancer
1-Bromopropane will soon be tested to see whether it can cause cancer. Many similar chemicals, such as dibromochloropropane, do cause cancer. In some tests, but not in others, 1-bromopropane has caused genetic mutations. Chemicals that cause mutations can often cause cancer as well.

Icariin is a flavonol, a type of flavonoid. It is the prenyl acetylation of kaempferide 3,7-O-diglucoside. The compound is derived from several species of plants in the genus Epimedium,which are commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo.Extracts from these plants are reputed to produce aphrodisiac effects, and are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine to enhance erectile function, as well as for several other indications.

 

Icariin ,with CAS number of 489-32-7, can be called as 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one,3-[(6-deoxy-a-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy]-7-(b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)- ; Ieariline . Icariin (CAS NO.489-32-7) is an important pharmaceutical intermediate.

Name:Icariin
Molecular Formula:C33H40O15
CAS Registry Number:489-32-7
Refractive index:1.679
Molecular Weight: 676.6617 g/mol
H bond acceptors: 15
H bond donors: 8
Freely Rotating Bonds: 17
Polar Surface Area: 146.29Å2
Molar Refractivity: 164.3 cm3
Molar Volume: 435 cm3
Surface Tension: 86.9 dyne/cm
Density: 1.55 g/cm3
Flash Point: 300.9 °C
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 144.62 kJ/mol
Boiling Point: 948.5 °C at 760 mmHg
Vapour Pressure: 0 mmHg at 25°C
Melting Point: 231-232 °C
Solubility: ethyl acetate, ethanol
Insolubility: chloroform,ether,benzene
Categories: Flavones; Functional Products; Natural Plant Extract; The group of Epimedii; plant extract.

Chlorothalonil is a broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide (fungicide) used to control fungi that threaten vegetables, trees, small fruits, turf, ornamentals, and other agricultural crops. It also controls fruit rots in cranberry bogs, and is used in paints.

1. Acute Toxicity

Chlorothalonil(CAS.NO:1897-45-6) is slightly toxic to mammals, but it can cause severe eye and skin irritation in certain formulations , Chlorothalonil containing products have a range of signal words, including: Warning , Caution (Exotherm Termil), and DANGER (Bravo W-75, Daconil W-75). Each of these products has a different formulation and product concentration and thus requires a different signal word. Very high doses may cause a loss of muscle coordination, rapid breathing, nose bleeding, vomiting, and hyperactivity. Dermatitis, vaginal bleeding, bright yellow and/or bloody urine, and kidney tumors may also occur, followed by death .

The oral LD50 is > 10,000 mg/kg for rats , and 6,000 mg/kg for mice . The acute dermal LD50 for both albino rabbits and albino rats is 10,000 mg/kg . In albino rabbits, 3 mg of chlorothalonil applied to the eyes caused mild irritation that subsided within seven days of exposure .

2. Chronic Toxicity

In a number of tests of varying lengths of time, rats which were fed a range of doses of chlorothalonil generally showed no effects on physical appearance, behavior, or survival. Kidney changes such as kidney enlargement were common . In a two-year dietary rat study, the lowest dose of chlorothalonil that produced no adverse effects in the animals was 60 ppm (3 mg/kg) .

Human eye and skin irritation is linked to chlorothalonil exposure. Fourteen out of 20 workers exposed to 0.5% chlorothalonil in a wood preservative developed dermatitis. All workers showed swelling and inflammation of the upper eyelids . Allergic skin responses have also been noted in vegetable and in horticultural workers .

3. Carcinogenic

Chlorothalonil is a Group B2 “probable human carcinogen”, based on observations of cancers and tumors of the kidneys and forestomachs in laboratory animals fed diets containing chlorothalonil.

4. Environmental

Chlorothalonil is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates, but not toxic to birds.

At a concentration of 164 µg/l, chlorothalonil was found to kill a species of frog within a 24-hour exposure.

5. Contaminants

Common chlorothalonil synthesis procedures frequently result in contamination of it with small amounts of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which is toxic. US regulations limit HCB in commercial production to 0.05% of chlorothalonil. According to the EPA report, “post-application exposure to HCB from chlorothalonil is not expected to be a concern based on the low level of HCB in chlorothalonil.

2-Chloronicotinic acid , its cas register number is 2942-59-8. It also can be called 2-Chloro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid ; Nicotinic acid, 2-chloro- ; 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 2-chloro- .It is a white to cream powder.

1. General description and application

Niacin (also called Nicotinic Acid) and Niacinamide (also called Nicotinamide), two compounds of water-soluble vitamin B complex, are active in the metabolism of body. Chemically they are 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid and 3-Pyridinecarboxamide respectively. Commercially, niacin is obtained from beta -picoline or from quinoline, which are both obtainable from coal tar. Niacinamide, more water soluble, is the amide form of niacin. When an amide molecule attaches itself to niacin, it becomes niacinamide. The B vitamins niacin and niacinamide are known as preventives of pellagra. Niacin is interchangeable in metabolism with its amide, niacinamide. Nicotinamide is hydrolyzed to the acid in the digestive tract of non-ruminants. After absorption in the mucosa, the amide is formed again. In the rumen of ruminants, nicotinamide is converted in a short time to nicotinic acid. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are therefore equivalent in action in the case of farm animals. These are key ingredients in animal feed and animal feed premixes as these contribute to numerous metabolic reactions  as hydrogen-transferring coenzymes. 2-Chloronicotinic acid is used as an intermediate for agrochemicals, feed additives, pharmaceuticals and animal food enrichments. Niacin acts to reduce plasma cholesterol, as a vasodilator and to treat pellagra.  Niacin is used for the prophylaxis. Their derivatives are used for these effects.

It Used as pharmaceutical intermediates for the manufacture of cigarettes mefenamic acid , smoke flufenamic acid ; pesticide intermediates for the manufacture of nicosulfuron , Diflufenican etc.

2. The preparation method

(1) With 3 – methylpyridine as a raw material , the first reaction with hydrogen peroxide, N- oxo-3 – methyl pyridine , and the acid-binding agent the presence of diisopropylamine in a solvent oxychloride was added dropwise phosphorus chloride, ring chlorination agent , to give 2 – chloro-5 – methyl- pyridine and 2 – chloro -3 – methyl pyridine was , crystallization and distillation using separation techniques combination , respectively to give 2 – chloro- – 5 – methylpyridine and 2 – chloro -3 – methyl pyridine. 2 – chloro -3 – methyl pyridine side-chain chlorinated to give 2 – chloro-3 – trichloromethylpyridine further hydrolysis to give 2 – chloro-3 – pyridine chloride or 2 – chloro-3 – pyridine carboxylic acid (2 – chloro- nicotinic acid ) .

(2) In phosphorus oxychloride and phosphorus trichloride mixture leads to chlorine , temperature controlled at about 60 ℃ until there is residual chlorine escape until cooled and nicotinic acid N-oxide was added in portions , heating and mixing liquid at . 100 ~ 105 ℃ reaction 1 ~ 1.5h, until the reaction mixture was then stirred transparent 30min, and the phosphorus oxychloride removed under reduced pressure , the resulting residue was cooled to room temperature, water was finished .

Drostanolone Propionate or Masteron is probably one of the most interesting steroids used by athletes. It is primarily for the treatment of breast cancer patients to inhibit estrogen production. Estrogen is the hormone secreted by female that gives them their distinct sexual characteristics. Maseril, the trademark of Drostanolone Propionate when used in breast cancer therapy is combined with SERM (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator). There was a drop in estrogen levels among women who had gone through treatment using this hormone. Dromostanolone propionate had become a favorite steroid among athletes and competitive bodybuilders. It is a pretty popular anabolic steroid.

Dromostanolone propionate is a derivative of dihydrotestosterone or DHT which restrains the conversion to estrogen through aromatization. It could be that its ability to inhibit estrogen from interacting with the aromatase enzyme or it blocks the receptor that binds the estrogen that causes this phenomena. Whatever the reason, because of its anti-estrogenic properties it blocks the conversion of free testosterones to estrogen through aromatization. This makes Dromostanolone propionate a common inclusion in a high anabolic cycle. Since compounds used in cycles to achieve mass gains and strengths have very potent testosterone content, Dromostanolone propionate is used to prevent the estrogenic side effects to take place. The side effects include bloating or water retention and gynecomastia.

 

Even though Dromostanolone propionate inhibits testosterone conversion to estrogen it still has anabolic and androgenic properties, simply because it is still a derivative of DHT. While some think that there is low aromatization with Dromostanolone propionate it still has a significant androgenic side-effects that one should expect when using this steroid. It could shut down the production of testosterone, so users should be careful to use this in post cycle therapy because it could actually slowdown recovery.

 

Dromostanolone propionate come in two forms – Drostanolone Propionate and Drostanolone Enanthate. The recommended dosage for propionate, which is the more fast acting version, is around 50-150mg/ml. This version needs to be injected everyday. While the Enanthate version’s recommended dosage is at 200mg/ml.

 

Most users of Dromostanolone propionate are athletes and competitive body builders. The anti-estrogenic properties make it a very effective cutting agent. When Dromostanolone propionate becomes part of their regular cycle it gives the muscles a more defined look. Muscle lines will be more distinct since it has lower water retention. When testosterone aromatase to estrogen there is a higher tendency to retain water that could cause bloating. Dromostanolone propionate will also draw out the water from between the muscles. Without the excess water weight and low body fat your muscles will be enhanced and you will see the finer details as your skin wraps tighter around them. Masteron could produce side effects such as decreased sex drive so to balance your body’s reactions to the steroid it is advised that you use stack it with other steroids.

 

When you introduce Dromostanolone propionate into your cycle make sure that you keep your body fat below 10% it is better if you already have a lean physique so that it will concentrate on its cutting functions and drawing out the excess water.

 

Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is used in preparation of other lithium salts where use of carbonate is not practical; as a catalyst in the production of alkyd resins, in esterifications. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is also used in the production of lithium soaps, greases and sulfonates.

Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is mainly consumed for the production of lithium greases. A popular lithium grease is lithium stearate, which is a general-purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and usefulness at both high and low temperatures.

It is used as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte. It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.

How to get Lithium hydroxide monohydrate?

Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is produced in a metathesis reaction between lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide:

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3

The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.

In the laboratory, Lithium hydroxide monohydrate arises by the action of water on lithium or lithium oxide. The equations for these processes follow:

2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2

Li2O + H2O → 2 LiOH

Typically, these reactions are avoided.

Although lithium carbonate is more widely used, the hydroxide is an effective precursor to lithium salts, e.g.

LiOH + HF → LiF + H2O.

 

EINECS:204-399-4

Molecular Formula:C9H10O3

CAS Registry Number:120-47-8

Molecular Weight:166.17

Appearance:white crystalline powder

Density:1.168 g/cm3

Melting Point:115-118℃

Boiling Point:297-298℃

Vapour:0.000759mmHg at 25°C

Refractive Index:1.538

Flash Point:120.3 °C

Water:Soluble in ethanol, ether and acetone, slightly soluble in water

Solubilities:Soluble in ethanol, ether and acetone, slightly soluble in water

Color/Form:SMALL, COLORLESS CRYSTALS OR WHITE POWDERCrystals from dilute alcohol

Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases.

HS Code:29182930

Storage temp:0-6°C

Methods of Manufacturing:Prepared by esterification of p-hydroxybenzoic acid.Parabens are prepared by esterifying PHBA
/parahydroxybenzoic acid/ with the corresponding alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid, and an excess of the specific alcohol. The acid is then neutralized with caustic soda, and the product is crystallized by cooling, centrifuged, washed, dried under vacuum, milled, and blended.

EINECS:205-705-9

Molecular Formula:C9H13N3O5

CAS Registry Number:147-94-4

Appearance:fine off-white crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:243.21662

Density:1.89 g/cm3

Boiling Point:545.7°C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:212 – 213 C

Flash Point:283.8°C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Refractive index:1.756

Solubility:Soluble

Stability:Stable.

Usage:

1.Cytarabine is mainly used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and in lymphomas,where it is the backbone of induction chemotherapy.

2.Cytarabine also possesses antiviral activity, and it has been used for the treatment of generalised herpesvirus infection. However, cytarabine isnot very selective in this setting and causes bone marrow suppression and other severe side effects, so it is used mainly for the chemotherapy ofhematologic cancers.

3.Cytarabine is also used in the study of the nervous system to control the proliferation of glial cells in cultures, the amount of glial cells having an important impact on neurons.