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2-Methyl-1-propanol is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH. This colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic smell is mainly used as a solvent. Its isomers include n-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol, all of which are important industrially.

Isobutanol is produced by the carbonylation of propylene. Two methods are practiced industrially, hydroformylation is more common and generates a mixture of isobutyraldehydes, which are hydrogenated to the alcohols and then separated. Reppe carbonylation is also practiced.

Name:2-Methyl-1-propanol

EINECS:201-148-0

Molecular Formula:C4H10O

CAS Registry Number:78-83-1 

Synonyms:Isobutanol; Isobutyl alcohol; Iso-Butanol; Iso Butanol; Natural Isobutyl Alcohol

InChI:InChI=1/C4H10O/c1-4(2)3-5/h4-5H,3H2,1-2H3

Appearance:Colorless liquid and has a characteristic odor

Molecular Weight:74.12

Density:0.802

Boiling Point:108℃

Melting Point:-108℃

Flash Point:28℃

Storage Temperature:Flammables area

Refractive index:1.3945-1.3765

Solubility:95 g/L (20 oC) in water

Stability:Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, aluminium.

Chemical Properties: colourless oily liquid

General Description :A clear colorless liquid with a sweet odor. Flash point 85 – 100°F. Less dense than water. Vapors heavier than air.

Air & Water Reactions: Highly flammable. Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile 2-Methyl-1-propanol is an alcohol. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of alcohols with alkali metals, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. They react with oxoacids and carboxylic acids to form esters plus water. Oxidizing agents convert them to aldehydes or ketones. Alcohols exhibit both weak acid and weak base behavior. They may initiate the polymerization of isocyanates and epoxides. 2-Methyl-1-propanol is incompatible with strong oxidizers.

Health Hazard: Contact with eyes is extremely irritating and may cause burns. Breathing vapors will be irritating to the nose and throat. In high concentrations, may cause nausea, dizziness, headache, and stupor.

Fire Hazard: Highly flammable: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.

 

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Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl. This colourless liquid is a reactive organochlorine compound that is a widely used chemical building block.

Industrially, benzyl chloride is the precursor to benzyl esters which are used as plasticizer, flavorants, and perfumes. Phenylacetic acid, a precursor to pharmaceuticals, arises via benzyl cyanide, which is generated by treatment of benzyl chloride with sodium cyanide. Quaternary ammonium salts, used as surfactants, are readily formed by alkylation of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride.

Benzyl chloride is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of certain dyes and pharmaceutical, perfume and flavor products. It is also used as a photographic developer.

Benzyl chloride can be used in the manufacture of synthetic tannins and as a gum inhibitor in petrol.

Benzyl chloride has been used as an irritant gas in chemical warfare.

Benzyl chloride is an alkylating agent. Indicative of its high reactivity (relative to alkyl chlorides), benzyl chloride reacts with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form benzyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid. Since benzyl chloride is quite volatile at room temperature, it can easily reach the mucous membranes where the hydrolysis takes place with production of hydrochloric acid. This explains why benzyl chloride is a lachrymator and has been used as a war gas. It is also very irritating to the skin.
Name:Benzyl Chloride

EINECS:202-853-6

Molecular Formula:C7H7Cl

CAS Registry Number:100-44-7

InChI:InChI=1/C7H7Cl/c8-6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5H,6H2

Appearance:colorless liquid

Molecular Weight:126.58

Density:1.1

Boiling Point:179°C

Melting Point:-39°C

Flash Point:67°C

Storage Temperature:0-6°C

Refractive index:1.537-1.539

Solubility:0.3 g/L (20 °C)
Stability:Unstable – inhibitors such as propylene oxide or trimethylamine are usually added to prevent polymerization. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, water, acids, most common metals, dimethyl sulfoxide. Above flash point vapour-air mixtures are explosive within the limits noted above. Contact with water produces toxic fumes.

Chemical Properties:Colorless to yellow liquid

General Description:A colorless liquid with an irritating odor. Toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. Flash point 153°F. Slightly soluble in water. Corrosive to metals and tissue. A lachrymator. Density 9.2 lb /gal.

Air & Water Reactions:A lachrymator. Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile:Halogenated aliphatic compounds, such as Benzyl chloride, are moderately or very reactive. Reactivity generally decreases with increased degree of substitution of halogen for hydrogen atoms. Materials in this group are incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Also, they are incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides.

Health Hazard:Intensely irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Highly toxic; may cause death or permanent injury after very short exposure to small quantities. Has been listed as a direct-acting or primary carcinogen. Large doses cause central nervous system depression.

Fire Hazard: Benzyl chloride burns but does not ignite readily. Benzyl chloride may ignite combustibles. When heated to decomposition, Benzyl chloride emits toxic and corrosive fumes. Some organic chlorides decompose to yield phosgene. Incompatible with active metals such as copper, aluminum, magnesium, iron, zinc, and tin and keep from strong oxidizing agents. Avoid contact with acids or acid fumes. Keep separate from oxidizing materials. May become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures; may react with water resulting in some nonviolent release of energy. Polymerizes with evolution of heat and hydrogen chloride when in contact with all common metals except nickel and lead.

 

1-Hydroxybenzotriazole (abbreviated HOBt) is an organic compound that is a derivative of benzotriazole. It is a white crystalline powder, which as a commercial product contains some water (~11.7% wt as the HOBt monohydrate crystal). Anhydrous HOBt is explosive.
It is mainly used to suppress the racemization of single-enantiomer chiral molecules and to improve the efficiency of peptide synthesis.
Automated peptide synthesis involves the condensation of the amino group of protected amino acids with the activated ester. HOBt is used to produce such activated esters. These esters are insoluble (like the N-hydroxysuccinimide esters) and react with amines at ambient temperature to give amides.
1-Hydroxybenzotriazole is also used for the synthesis of amides from carboxylic acids aside from amino acids. These substrates may not be convertible to the acyl chlorides. For instance amide derivatives of ionophoric antibiotics have been prepared in this way.

Name:1-Hydroxybenzotriazole

EINECS:219-989-7

Molecular Formula:C6H5N3O

CAS Registry Number:2592-95-2 

Synonyms:1-Hydroxy-1H-benzotriazole; 1-Hydroxybenzotriazole anhydrous; HOBt; N-1-Hydroxybenzotriazole

InChI:InChI=1/C6H5N3O/c10-9-6-4-2-1-3-5(6)7-8-9/h1-4,10H

HS Code:29339980

Appearance:white to light yellow powder

Molecular Weight:135.12

Density:1.51 g/cm3

Boiling Point:344.6 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:156-159℃

Flash Point:162.2 °C

Storage Temperature:Store at RT.

Refractive index:n20/D 1.488

Solubility:Slightly soluble

Stability:Stable, but possible risk of explosion if heated under confinement. Flammable.

Hazard Codes: F,Xi,T

Risk Statements: 11-5-36/38-36/37/38-36-20/21-61

Safety Statements: 16-33-7/9-26-45-53-15

RIDADR: 1325

RTECS: DM1288000

HazardClass: 4.1

PackingGroup: III

HS Code: 29339980
Butyl acetate is a colourless liquid with a fruity odour, existing in four isomeric forms. Three of the isomers are important solvents for cellulose lacquers. Formula: CH3COOC4H9

Butyl acetate, also known as butyl ethanoate, is an organic compound commonly used as a solvent in the production of lacquers and other products. It is a colorless flammable liquid. Butyl acetate is found in many types of fruit, where along with other chemicals it imparts characteristic flavors and has a sweet smell of banana or apple. It is used as a synthetic fruit flavoring in foods such as candy, ice cream, cheeses, and baked goods.
Butyl acetates(CAS.NO:123-86-4) are commonly manufactured by the Fischer esterification of a butanol isomer and acetic acid with the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid under reflux conditions.
Butyl acetate is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. Attacks many plastics.

Butyl acetate is an organic compound, meaning it is a compound that has carbon. In terms of molecular structure, butyl acetate contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Organically, butyl acetate is found in many fruits. When synthesized, it is used as a solvent with lacquers and as an artificial fruit flavor.

Butyl acetate contains six molecules of carbon, 12 molecules of hydrogen and two molecules of oxygen. The molar mass, which measures the mass of every molecule in a compound, is 116.16 g/mol, making it a fairly heavy compound. In appearance, butyl ethanoate is colorless, a liquid at room temperate and has a fruity odor. The melting point is -101° Fahrenheit (-74° Celsius) and the boiling point is 256°F (126°C). It is an ester, which means it is an organic compound in which a hydrogen molecule is replaced with an alkyl.

Naturally, butyl acetate is found in pears, raspberries and pineapples, along with many other fruits. Honey bees’ stingers have pheromones that contain butyl ethanoate. Products featuring this compound include milk, cheese, rum, roasted nuts and many other products that need fermentation.

As a solvent, butyl acetate is found in several products. For home use, butyl ethanoate is used in lacquers. The pharmaceutical industry also uses this compound as an extraction agent. Other minor uses include fragrances, cosmetics and in cleaning products.

Apples, especially of the Red Delicious variety, are flavored in part by this chemical. The alarm pheromones emitted by the Koschevnikov gland of honey bees contain butyl acetate.
Ethyl 4-aminobenzoate is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops. It is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter anesthetic ointments such as products for oral ulcers. It is also combined with antipyrine to form A/B Otic Drops to relieve ear pain and remove earwax.

Name:Ethyl 4-aminobenzoate

EINECS:202-303-5

Molecular Formula:C9H11NO2

CAS Registry Number:94-09-7

Synonyms:4-Aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester; benzocaine methanol solution; Ethyl 4-aminobenzoate,(4-Aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester); Benzocaine; H-4-Abz-OEt; Benzocione

InChI:InChI=1/C9H11NO2/c1-2-12-9(11)7-3-5-8(10)6-4-7/h3-6H,2,10H2,1H3

HS Code:29224995

Appearance:White crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:165.19

Density:1.17

Boiling Point:172℃ (17 torr)

Melting Point:89-92℃

Flash Point:> 110 C

Storage Temperature:0-6°C

Refractive index:1.5502

Solubility:Insoluble

Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Usage:A commonly used topical pain reliever. Main active ingredient in anesthetic ointments.
Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous, also called Tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium phosphate or TSPP, is a colorless transparent crystalline chemical compound with the formula Na4P2O7. It is a salt composed of pyrophosphate and sodium ions. Toxicity is approximately twice that of table salt when ingested orally. There is also a hydrated form, Na4P2O7 · 10(H2O).
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate, Anhydrous, is a white, granular or powdered product. It has been certified by the NSF International for use in the treatment of drinking water at a maximum dosage of 14 mg/L.
1. Application
Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous(CAS.NO:7722-88-5) is used as a buffering agent, an emulsifier, a dispersing agent, and a thickening agent, and is often used as a food additive. Common foods containing Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous include chicken nuggets, marshmallows, pudding, crab meat, imitation crab, canned tuna, and soy-based meat alternatives and cat foods and cat treats where it is used as a palatability enhancer. It is the active ingredient in Bakewell, the substitute for baking powder’s acid component marketed during shortages in World War II. It is also used in some common baking powders.
In toothpaste and dental floss, Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous acts as a tartar control agent, serving to remove calcium and magnesium from saliva and thus preventing them from being deposited on teeth. Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous is used in commercial dental rinses before brushing to aid in plaque reduction.
Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous is sometimes used in household detergents to prevent similar deposition on clothing, but due to its phosphate content it causes eutrophication of water, promoting algae growth.
2. Usage
Used as quality improver, emulsifier, buffer, chelating agent, etc. in food industry. As quality improver, PH regulator, metal ion chelating agent, emulsifying and dispersing agent, adhesive, etc. in food industry. Used in meat and aquatic product processing, can keep the fresh of the meat, stabilize the natrual pigment and prevent corruption of the fat, it can be also used for manufacturing of fast rising yeast, cheese, etc.
3. Physicochemical properties
Physicochemical properties: White powder or crystal. Melting point 880℃. Density 2.534g/cm3. Soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. It’s aqueous solution is alkaline and stable below 70℃, hydrolyzes into sodium hydrogen phosphate after boiling. Can form complex with alkaline earth metal ion, liable to deliquesce.
4. Production
Tetrasodium phosphate is produced by the reaction of furnace-grade phosphoric acid with sodium carbonate to form disodium phosphate, which is then heated to 450 °C to form tetrasodium phosphate.
5. Storage Procedures
Store at room temperature in a dry, well-ventilated place out of direct sunlight. Keep separate from strong acids. Avoid dust build-up. Keep container tightly closed when not in use. Material should be stored in secondary containers or in a diked area, as appropriate. Store containers away from incompatible chemicals.
Chlorothalonil  is a polychlorinated aromatic mainly used as a broad spectrum, nonsystemic fungicide, with other uses as a wood protectant, pesticide, acaricide, and to control mold, mildew, bacteria, algae.

Chlorothalonil(CAS.NO:1897-45-6) is used to control of many fungal diseases in a wide range of crops, including pome fruit, stone fruit, citrus fruit, bush and cane fruit, crancerries, strawberries, pawpaws, bananas, mangoes, coconut palms, oil palms rubber, pepper, vines, hops, vegetables, cucurbits, tobacco, coffee, tea, rice, soya beans, peanuts, potatoes, sugar beet, cotton, maize, ornamentals, mushrooms, and turf.

The dose rates recommended for crop protection have been derived from efficacy studies conducted in a variety of climatic conditions in various parts of the world. The label recommendations are designed to give satisfactory fungal disease control and to keep residues within national and international limits.

Chlorothalonil is the most important golf fungicide

– Controls major diseases such as dollar spot, anthracnose and brown patch

– Broad spectrum, protectant fungicide.

– No resistance has been detected following 40 years of use.
● Chlorothalonil is often tank mixed with other fungicides for broader disease spectrum and resistance management :

– DMI and benzimidazole resistant dollar spot

– QoI resistant anthracnose

– Mixtures with QoI for dollar spot control.
History of Chlorothalonil
● 1961 – 1st synthesized by Diamond Alkali

● 1963 field testing began

● 1966 first registered on turf

● 1970 first registered on crops and ornamentals

● 1998 acquired by Zeneca

● 2000 – merger with Novartis – now Syngenta

● Current – over 65 crops and 125 diseases

Ornamental Market

● Main Uses: – Chlorothalonil is utilized on a diverse number of indoor (greenhouse) and outdoor (nursery) crops.

• Greenhouse use is focused on prevention of general leafspots, rusts and botrytis listed on the label.

• Outdoor use (nursery) is focused on general leaf spot diseases, rusts and powdery mildew listed on the label. – Christmas trees, conifers, and roses are the most often treated ornamental crops.

● Application Methods: – Foliar applications are generally applied at or around 100 gal/acre while large plants may receive foliar applications at 200 gal/acre to achieve thorough coverage.

● High rate uses: – Pachysandra had an outlier rate of 2.1 lbs of Chlorothalonil per 100 gal opposed to typical labeled rate of 1.0 lb per 100 gal for normal ornamental use.

• Pachysandra will be removed from the label as a label amendment

● Christmas trees: (conifers) – Label amendments in progress to clarify uses do not include forest application

• Conifer uses include: conifer nursery beds, Christmas tree and bough production plantations, tree seed orchards. and landscape situations
Environmental Safety Summary

● Chlorothalonil is of low toxicity to non-target terrestrial organisms

● Consequently does not present an unacceptable risk to these organisms

● Although chlorothalonil has high intrinsic toxicity to some aquatic organisms, does not result in adverse effects in actual field use

● Due to the very rapid rate of dissipation of chlorothalonil in aquatic environments resulting in low and transient exposure

Terrestrial Risk

● Chlorothalonil is of low toxicity and consequently low risk to non-target terrestrial organisms, – including birds and mammals, bees and other non-target arthropods, earthworms, soil microorganisms and plants.

● In the terrestrial environment, chlorothalonil is rapidly degraded by microorganisms.

● The principle soil degradate is SDS-3701, has also been shown to be of low risk to soil organisms and birds and mammals.

● Chlorothalonil is not mobile in soil and does not leach to groundwater.

● The degradate SDS-3701 is more mobile than the parent, but the potential for leaching to groundwater is low.

Chlorothalonil Aquatic Risk

● Chlorothalonil has high intrinsic toxicity to some aquatic organisms

● Chlorothalonil dissipates very rapidly in surface water

● Resulting in low and transient exposure to aquatic organisms

● Supported by monitoring data

● Results in a low risk to the aquatic environment

Chlorothalonil Summary

● Very important fungicide for disease control and resistance management

● Used on a broad range of crops

● Dissipates rapidly in both soil and water

● Low toxicity and low risk to terrestrial organisms

● Despite high intrinsic toxicity to some aquatic organisms, low risk due to low and transient exposure.

Androsta-1,4-dien-3-one,17-hydroxy-17-methyl-, (17b)- With the CAS registry number 72-63-9,  is white to off-white crystalline powder.  its product Name is Metandienone. it is an orally-effective anabolic steroid originally developed in Germany and released in the US in the early 1960s by Ciba Specialty Chemicals.

1. Chemical Properties

Name:Androsta-1,4-dien-3-one,17-hydroxy-17-methyl-, (17b)-

EINECS:200-787-2

Molecular Formula:C20H28O2

CAS Registry Number:72-63-9

InChI:InChI=1/C20H28O2/c1-18-9-6-14(21)12-13(18)4-5-15-16(18)7-10-19(2)17(15)8-11-20(19,3)22/h6,9,12,15-17,22H,4-5,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t15-,16+,17+,18+,19+,20+/m1/s1

HS Code:29329970

Appearance:white to off-white crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:300.44

Density:1.12 g/cm3

Boiling Point:436.5 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:163 – 167 C

Flash Point:436.5 °C at 760 mmHg

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Refractive index:1.572

Solubility:practically insoluble <

Usage:Anabolic steroid. Androgen. Controlled substance.

2. Safety Information

RIDADR:  3249

WGK Germany : 3

RTECS:  BV8000000

F: 8

HazardClass:  6.1(b)

PackingGroup:  III

HS Code:  29329970

Hazardous Substances Data: 72-63-9

Methyl methacrylate is a colourless liquid compound, used in the manufacture of certain methacrylate resins and plastics. Methyl methacrylate is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes in humans.  An allergic response to dermal exposure may develop.  Respiratory effects have been reported in humans following acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) inhalation exposures.  Respiratory symptoms observed following acute exposures include chest tightness, dyspnea, coughing, wheezing, and reduced peak flow.  Neurological symptoms have also been reported in humans following acute exposure to methyl methacrylate.  Fetal abnormalities have been reported in animals exposed to methyl methacrylate by injection and inhalation. EPA considers methyl methacrylate not likely to be carcinogenic to humans.

1. Acute Effects

*Methyl methacrylate(CAS.NO:80-62-6) is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes in humans.  An allergic response to dermal exposure may develop.

*Respiratory symptoms reported in humans include chest tightness, dyspnea, coughing, wheezing, and reduced peak flow.

*Neurological symptoms, including headache, lethargy, lightheadedness, and sensation of heaviness in arms and legs, have occurred in humans following acute exposure to methyl methacrylate.

*In mice and rats acutely exposed to high concentrations of methyl methacrylate by inhalation, degenerative olfactory changes in the nasal passages and lung damage have been observed.  High doses of methyl methacrylate may cause pulmonary edema.

*Acute oral exposure of animals to methyl methacrylate has caused damage to the liver.

*Tests involving acute exposure of rats, mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs have demonstrated methyl methacrylate to have low to moderate acute toxicity by inhalation or oral exposure.

2. Chronic Effects (Noncancer)

*Respiratory and nasal symptoms and reduced lung function have been reported in chronically exposed workers.

*In one study, occupational exposure to high doses of methyl methacrylate was associated with cardiovascular disorders in humans.

*Chronic inhalation of methyl methacrylate by rats has resulted in respiratory effects (e.g., inflammation of the nasal cavity, degeneration/loss of olfactory epithelium in nasal turbinates, and lung congestion).  Chronic inhalation of high levels of methyl methacrylate has resulted in degenerative and necrotic changes in the liver, kidney, brain, spleen, and bone marrow, decreased body weight gain, listlessness, prostration, and ocular and nasal discharge in animals.

*EPA has calculated a Reference Concentration (RfC) for methyl methacrylate of 0.7 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) based on respiratory effects in rats. The RfC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime.  It is not a direct estimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects.  At exposures increasingly greater than the RfC, the potential for adverse health effects increases.  Lifetime exposure above the RfC does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur.

*EPA has medium to high confidence in the RfC based on:

(1) high confidence in the principal study because it was a long-term inhalation study performed with large group sizes, with additional histopathological analyses, described effects to the target organ well, and identified a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL);

(2) medium to high confidence in the database because developmental studies were performed in two species, with effects observed only in offspring at levels more than 10-fold higher than the LOAEL for the critical effect, and no multigenerational reproductive studies are available.

*EPA has calculated a Reference Dose (RfD) of 1.4 milligrams per kilogram body weight per day (mg/kg/d) based on no adverse effects in rats.

*EPA has low to medium confidence in the RfD based on: (1) low to medium confidence in the principal study because it was not conducted in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice and did not identify a LOAEL, and (2) low to medium confidence in the database because quantitative human subchronic or chronic studies are not available and although repeat exposure inhalation studies (including developmental, reproductive, and chronic studies) bolster the weak and dated oral database somewhat, no developmental or reproductive studies by the oral route are available and no multigenerational studies are available by any route of exposure.

3. Reproductive/Developmental Effects

*No adequate reproductive or developmental studies in humans are available.

*Inhalation exposure of rats to maternally-toxic levels of methyl methacrylate resulted in fetal abnormalities (hematomas and skeletal anomalies) and decreased fetal weight and crown-rump length.

4. Cancer Risk

*From a retrospective epidemiology study, a causal relationship between occupational exposure and increased incidences of colon and rectal cancers has been suggested; however, the causal relationship could not be established when relative accumulated total exposures and latency were considered.

*No carcinogenic effects were observed in several inhalation and oral animal studies.

*EPA considers methyl methacrylate not likely to be carcinogenic to humans.

Arbutin is a naturally occuring derivative of hydroquinone found in the leaves of cranberry, bearberry, and blueberry shrubs, most types of pears, and many other plants. Arbutin may inhibit melanogenesis by affecting tyrosinase activity.
1. Mechanism of action of arbutin
The mechanism of action of arbutin is through the competitive inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin, although it has been suggested that it may also affect other steps in the synthesis and accumulation of melanin.

2. Application
1). Arbutin used in cosmetic industry:
Arbutin protect the skin against damage caused by free radicals, Arbutin is a skin whitening agent which is very popular in Japan and Asian countries for skin de-pigmentation, Arbutin inhibits the formation of melanin pigment by inhibiting Tyrosinase activity.
Arbutin is very safe skin agent for external use which does not have toxicity, stimulation, unpleasant odor or side effect such as Hydroqinone.The encapsulation of Arbutin constitute a delivery system to potentialize the effect in time. It is a way to incorporate the hydrophilic Arbutin in lipophilic media. Arbutin give three main properties; Whitening effects, anti- age effect and UVB/ UVC filter .

 

Bearberry extract is used in skin lightening treatments designed for long term and regular use. An active agent in brands of skin lightening preparations, it is more expensive than traditional skin lightening ingredients like hydroquinone, which is now banned in many countries. In vitro studies of human melanocytes exposed to arbutin at concentrations below 300 μg/mL reported decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content with little evidence of cytotoxicity.
2). Arbutin in medical use:
Back in the 18th century, Arbutin was first used in medical areas as an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agent. Arbutin was used particularly for cystitis, urethritis and pyelitis. These uses still until today where natural medicine uses only natural ingredients to treat any disease.
Also arbutin may be used to repress the virulence of bacterial pathogens and to prevent contaminating bacteria, it is also used for treating allergic inflammation of the skin . More recently, Arbutin has been used to prevent pigmentation and to whiten the skin beautifully. In the meanwhile, arbutin can be used to whiten the skin, to prevent liver spots and freckles, to treat sunburn marks and to regulate melanogenesis.
3. Production

Pure arbutin can be prepared synthetically from the reaction of acetobromoglucose and hydroquinone in the presence of alkali.
4. Indications
Arbutin pure Active is indicated for treating hyperpigmented areas and dark spots. It is well known for reducing melanin levels, whitening the skin and the marks caused by sunburn.
5. Action
By inhibiting the production of melanin, the pigment responsible for the colouring of the skin, Arbutin lightens the skin, reduces the intensity of dark spots and evens out the complexion. Indeed, it has depigmentation properties to lighten the skin.
6. Risks
Arbutin is glucosylated hydroquinone,and may carry similar cancer risks, although there are also claims that arbutin reduces cancer risk. The German Institute of Food Research in Potsdam found that intestinal bacteria can transform arbutin into hydroquinone, which creates an environment favorable for intestinal cancer.