Archives for the month of: February, 2014
Inositol is also named as 1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-Cyclohexanehexol, cis-; AI3-16111; CCRIS 6745; Dambose; Inosital; Inositene; Inositina; Inositol (VAN). It is white powder. Inositol or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol is a chemical compound with formula C6H12O6 or (-CHOH-)6, a sixfold alcohol (polyol) of cyclohexane. It is almost tasteless, with a small amount of sweetness. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, acetic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerin, insoluble in ether, acetone and chloroform.
Inositol or its phosphates and associated lipids are found in many foods, in particular fruit, especially cantaloupe and oranges. In plants, the hexaphosphate of inositol, phytic acid or its salts, the phytates, are found. These serve as phosphate stores in the seed. Phytic acid occurs also in cereals with high bran content and also nuts and beans, but inositol when present as phytate is not directly bioavailable to humans in the diet, since it is not digestible (s)ome food preparation techniques partly break down phytates to change this. Inositol as it occurs in certain plant-derived substances such as lecithins, however, is well-absorbed and relatively bioavailable.

1. Uses of Inositol
Inositol has been used as an adulterant (or cutting agent) in many illegal drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and sometimes heroin. It is presumed that this use is connected with one or more of the substance’s properties of solubility, powdery texture, or reduced sweetness (50%) as compared with more common sugars. Inositol is also used as a stand-in for cocaine on television.
2. Function
Inositol and some of its mono and polyphosphates function as the basis for a number of signaling and secondary messenger molecules. They are involved in a number of biological processes, including:
*Insulin signal transduction

*Cytoskeleton assembly

*Nerve guidance (Epsin)

*Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration control

*Cell membrane potential maintenance

*Breakdown of fats and reducing blood cholesterol

*Gene expression
3. Properties



Molecular Formula:C6H12O6

CAS Registry Number:87-89-8 


HS Code:29061390

Appearance:white powder

Molecular Weight:180.16

Density:2.039 g/cm3

Boiling Point:291.326 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:220-228℃

Flash Point:143.387 °C

Storage Temperature:Store at RT.

Solubility:14 g/100 mL (25 °C) in water Stability

Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Usage: The structural basis for a number of signaling and secondary messenger molecules including; insulin signal transduction, cytoskeleton assembly, nerve guidance, membrane potentials, serotonin activity and the breaking down of fats and reducing cholesterol.
4. Preparation of Inositol
Inositol is produced from glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) in two steps. First, G-6-P is isomerised by ISYNA1 to inositol 1-phosphate; then it is dephosphorylated by IMPase 1 to give free Inositol . In humans most inositol is synthesized in the kidneys, in typical amounts of a few grams per day.
Butyl acrylate, also known as 2-Propenoic acid, butyl ester, clear colorless, flammable liquid with a sharp characteristic odor. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, acetone and other organic solvents, but almost insoluble in water. What’s more, n-butyl acrylate is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases. It can be polymerized into polymer and copolymer used in industry.

Butyl acrylate reacts exothermically with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents, perhaps sufficiently exothermically to ignite the reaction products. Mixing with basic solutions generates heat. Generates flammable hydrogen with alkali metals and hydrides. Attacks many plastics . Polymerizes readily, generating much heat in a reaction that is favored by heat and light.
1. Uses of Butyl acrylate
Acrylic acid and its esters are widely used in industry. In use, it tends to aggregate acrylate into polymers or copolymers. Butyl acrylate (as well as methyl esterl, ethyl ester, 2-ethylhexoate) belongs to the soft monomer, which can copolymerize, crosslink and stem graft with a variety of hard monomers such as methyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, and functional monomers such as HEMA, HpAA, glycidyl ester to produce a variety of 200-700 acrylic resin products. These products are widely used as coatings, adhesives, modified acrylic fibers, plastics modification, fiber and fabric processing, paper processing agents, leather processing, acrylic rubber, etc.
2. Properties of Butyl acrylate
Name:Butyl Acrylate


Molecular Formula:C7H12O2

CAS Registry Number:141-32-2 

Synonyms:2-Propenoic acid butyl ester; Acrylic acid n-butyl ester; Butyl 2-Propenoate; Butyl acrylate, stabilized with 20 ppm MEHQ; n-Butyl Acrylate; Propenoic acid n-butyl ester;


Appearance:clear, colorless Liquid

Molecular Weight:128.17


Boiling Point:145℃

Melting Point:-64℃

Flash Point:39℃

Storage Temperature:Flammables area

Refractive index:1.417-1.419

Solubility:1.4 g/L (20 °C) in water

Stability:Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases.
3. Preparation of Butyl acrylate
The production methods of acrylate are from acrylonitrile hydrolysis, β-propiolactone, Reppe method and improved Reppe method, cyanoethanol and the direct oxidation of propylene.
1). From cyanoethanol: The reaction of chloroethanol and sodium cyanide generates cyanoethanol which can hydrolyze to produce acrylic in the presence of sulfuric acid.

2). From acrylonitrile hydrolysis: As a rich source of acrylonitrile, this method to produce acrylate has been developed. Now, the industrialized methods contains Societe Ugine and Standard Oil Co (O-hio). Heat acrylonitrile and sulfuric acid to 90 °C to make acrylonitrile be hydrolyzed into acrylamide sulfate. The further esterification of this sulfate produces acrylate. Recently, it has been reported that when use acrylonitrile as raw material from one-step production, the yield of ether is 95%.
3). From β-propiolactone: Use acetic acid or acetone as raw materials, phosphate ester as catalyst to generate ethenone by pyrolysis at 625-730 °C. And then react with anhydrous methyl ester in the presence of AICI3 or BF3 catalyst to produce β-propiolactone by gas reaction at 25 °C. If the end product is acrylic, the propiolactone contacts with hot 100% phosphoric acid to obtain acrylic. If the end product is acrylate, the crude propiolactone may not go through purification, but directly reacts with the corresponding alcohol and sulfuric acid.
4. Safty of Butyl acrylate 
Butyl acrylate is harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. It is also irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable gloves and avoid contact with eyes. Moreover, it is harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. You should avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.
Sodium thiosulfate, or sodium thiosulphate, is a colorless, water-soluble salt. It is a calcium-chelating agent and has many medical uses in removing toxic substances from the body. Depending on the medical condition being treated, the salt can be injected, taken orally, or applied to the skin. It is also used in some vital tests for kidney patients to glean information without doing harm.

This compound is combined with sodium nitrite and used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning in both children and adults. Sodium thiosulfate reacts with the cyanide and forms sodium thioyanate, a nontoxic substance that can then be excreted harmlessly from the body. The salt is also used to treat arsenic poisoning. Studies show that it can be useful in removing excess copper from patients too.
The calcium-chelating properties of sodium thiosulfate make it a useful agent for treating disorders involving excess calcium. Both tumoral calcinosis and calcific nephrolithiasis have been successfully treated with the salt. Studies indicate it may treat calciphylaxis, a condition that sometimes occurs in chronic kidney dialysis patients.

Ringworm and tinea versicolor are fungal infections of the skin. Ringworm looks like a circular area of rash, while tinea versicolor appears as white patches on the skin. Sodium thiosulfate is used to treat both of these fungal infections. It is added to the water of footbaths to treat ringworm of the feet. To treat tinea versicolor, the salt is often combined with salicylic acid in a preparation that is applied topically to the affected areas.
Medical Summary
*It is used as an antidote to cyanide poisoning.Thiosulfate acts as a sulfur donor for the conversion of cyanide to thiocyanate (which can then be safely excreted in the urine), catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanase.
*It has also been used as treatment of calciphylaxis in hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease.
*It is used in the management of extravasations during chemotherapy. Sodium thiosulfate prevents alkylation and tissue destruction by providing a substrate for the alkylating agents that have invaded the subcutaneous tissues. The dose may be 2mL of 0.17M (a solution of 4mL 10% sodium thiosulfate and 6mL sterile water for injection). It may be instilled subcutaneously into multiple sites using a small gauge needle. There are limited data on this method with few recommendations.
*in foot baths for prophylaxis of ringworm, and as a topical antifungal agent for tinea versicolor.
*in measuring the volume of extracellular body fluid and the renal glomerular filtration rate.
Other Uses
Sodium thiosulfate has many uses ,some main uses are as follows:
1. In analytical chemistry, the most important use comes from the fact that the thiosulfate anion reacts stoichiometrically with iodine, reducing it to iodide as it is oxidized to tetrathionate:
                                     2 S2O32-(aq) + I2(aq) → S4O62-(aq) + 2 I-(aq)
Due to the quantitative nature of this reaction, as well as the fact that Na2S2O3.5H2O has an excellent shelf-life, it is used as a titrant in iodometry. Na2S2O3.5H2O is also a component of iodine clock experiments.
2. Sodium thiosulfate is one component of an alternative lixiviant to cyanide for extraction of gold. It forms a strong complex with gold(I) ions, [Au(S2O3)2]3-.


Calcium hydroxide, with CAS number of 1305-62-0, can be called agriculturallime; Bell mine; bellmine; biocalc; Ca(OH)2; Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2); calciumhydroxide(Ca(OH)2); calciumhydroxidechemicallime. It is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.  It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or “slaked” with water.
1. Description of Calcium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, colorless crystal or white powder. It is prepared by reacting calcium oxide (lime) with water, a process called slaking, and is also known as hydrated lime or slaked lime. When heated above 580°C, forming the oxide. Like the oxide, it has many uses, e.g., in liming soil, in sugar refining, and in preparing other compounds. It is a strong base and is widely used as an inexpensive alkali, often as a suspension in water (milk of lime); it is used in leather tanning to remove hair from hides. It is used in whitewash, mortar, and plaster. It is only slightly soluble in water, about 0.2 grams per 100 cubic centimeters, so its solutions are weakly basic. Limewater is a clear, saturated water solution of calcium hydroxide. It is used in medicine to treat acid burns and as an antacid. Because calcium hydroxide readily reacts with carbon dioxide, CO2, to form calcium carbonate, a mixture of gases can be tested for the presence of CO2 by shaking it with limewater in a clear container; if CO2 is present, a cloudy calcium carbonate precipitate will form.
2. Preparation of Calcium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide is produced commercially by treating lime with water:

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2

In the laboratory it can be prepared by mixing an aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide. The mineral form, portlandite, is relatively rare but can be found in some volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks. It has also been known to arise in burning coal dumps.
3. Uses of Calcium hydroxide
1). Calcium hydroxide is used in the separation of sugar from sugar cane in the sugar industry and in the processing of Norwegian lutefisk.It also used for clearing a brine of carbonates of calcium and magnesium in the manufacture of salt for food and pharmacopoeia.

2). In dentistry, it is used as dressing in paste form used for anti-microbial effect during a dental root canal procedure. Calcium hydroxide is known to have a strong anti-microbial effect and is a bone-regeneration stimulant.

3). Calcium hydroxide is used as an acid suppressor in the production of metals. Lime is injected into the waste gas stream to neutralise acids such as fluorides and chlorides prior to being released to atmosphere.

4). In the beauty industry, used in relaxers for permanently straightening very curly hair.

4. Safety of Calcium hydroxide

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:

1). In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice;

2). Wear eye/face protection;

3). In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible);

4). Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection;

5). Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
L-Glutamine, with the IUPAC Name of (2S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid, is one kind of white crystalline powder. And its Classification Code are including Dietary supplement; Drug / Therapeutic Agent; Human Data; Mutation data. L-Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (building block of protein) in the body. The popular amino acid L-Glutamine is found in protein powders, beans, meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, and of course. It is used in the gut and immune system to maintain optimal performance. 60% of free-form amino acids floating in skeletal muscles is L-Glutamine.
1. Physical properties about L-Glutamine



Molecular Formula:C5H10N2O3

CAS Registry Number:56-85-9 


HS Code:29241900

Appearance:white powder

Molecular Weight:146.14


Boiling Point:445.6℃at760mmHg

Melting Point:185℃

Flash Point:185℃

Alpha:32.25 °(C=10, 2 N HCL)

Storage Temperature:20°C

Refractive index:6.8 ° (C=4, H2O)

Solubility:H2O: 25 mg/mL

Stability:Stability Moisture and light sensitive. Incompatible with moisture, strong oxidizing agents.

Usage:One of the 20 amino acids encoded by our genetic code. A non-essential amino acid.  L-Glutamine is an essential amino acid that is a crucial component of culture media that serves as a major energy source for cells in culture. L-Glutamine is very stable as a dry powder and as a frozen solution. In liquid media or stock solutions, however, L-glutamine degrades relatively rapidly. Optimal cell performance usually requires supplementation of the media with L-glutamine prior to use.
2. Uses of L-Glutamine
1). L-Glutamine has been studied extensively over the past 10–15 years and has been shown to be useful in treatment of serious illnesses, injury, trauma, burns, cancer and its treatment related side-effects as well as in wound healing for postoperative patients.

2). Glutamine is also marketed as a supplement used for muscle growth in weightlifting, bodybuilding, endurance, and other sports.

3). Glutamine has also been taken to enhance brain function as it fuels two of the brain’s most important neurotransmitters.

4). It has also been used in the treatment of ADHD, anxiety,and depression.

5). It has also been used in recovery programs to break sugar craving cycles in alcoholics and assist diabetics in the management of sugar cravings.

6). It is also used as an anti-inflammatory in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and preserves Glutathione levels in the liver.
Albendazole, marketed as Albenza (United States), Eskazole, Zentel, Andazol and Alworm, is a benzimidazole drug used for the treatment of a variety of parasitic worm infestations. Although this use is widespread in the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved albendazole for this indication. It is marketed by Amedra Pharmaceuticals. Albendazole was first discovered at the SmithKline Animal Health Laboratories in 1972. It is a broad spectrum anthelmintic, effective against roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes of domestic animals and humans.
Albendazole , its cas register number is 54965-21-8. It also can be called Methyl 5-propylthio-2-benzimidazolecarbamate . It may cause dizziness, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, or temporary hair loss. It is colourless crystalline solid.
1. Uses
Albendazole is a member of the benzimidazole compounds used as a drug indicated for the treatment of a variety of worm infestations. It is effective against: flatworms, flukes/trematodes, tapeworm/cestodes, echinococcosis, nematodes, hookworms, roundworms, whipworms, and threadworms or pinworms. In Africa, albendazole is being used to treat lymphatic filariasis as part of efforts to stop transmission of the disease. In Brazil and other countries it is used against giardiasis.
2. Chemistry
IUPAC Name: Methyl N-(6-propylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate
CAS Registry Number:54965-21-8 
Appearance:Colourless crystalline solid
Density:1.3 g/cm3
Melting Point:208-210℃
Storage Temperature:0-6°C
Refractive index:1.634
Stability:Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions.
Usage:An anthelmintic
Molecular Formula: C12H15N3O2S
Molecular Weight: 265.33
EINECS : 259-414-7
Product Category: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients;API;Intermediates & Fine Chemicals;Veterinaries;Miscellaneous Compounds
Molar Refractivity: 72.69 cm3
Molar Volume: 203.1 cm3
Surface Tension: 61.9 dyne/cm
Density of Albendazole: 1.3 g/cm3
3. Safety Profile
Hazard Codes: T
Risk Statements: 61-36/37/38
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
R61:May cause harm to the unborn child.
Safety Statements: 53-45-37/39-26
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
S53:Avoid exposure – obtain special instructions before use.
S37/39:Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
WGK Germany 2
RTECS FD1100000
1,2-Propanediol , also known as Propylene glycol, is a colorless, odorless, viscous, highly hygroscopic liquid with a faintly sweet taste. It is miscible with water, ethanol, ether, chloroform, acetone and other organic solvents. The solubility to hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons is small, but it is strong than ethylene glycol. 1,2-Propanediol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two optically active forms. And the commercial 1,2-Propanediol is a racemic mixture.

1. Uses of 1,2-Propanediol

1,2-Propanediol is an important raw material in unsaturated polyester, epoxy resins, polyurethane resins, plasticizers and surfactants. The amount occupies about 45% of total consumption. This unsaturated polyester is largely used for surface coatings and reinforced plastics. Because of good viscosity and moisture absorption, and non-toxic, 1,2-Propanediol is widely used as a hygroscopic agent, antifreeze, lubricants and solvents in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.
In the food industry, 1,2-Propanediol and fatty acid reacts to produce 1,2-Propanediol ester of fatty acid, which is mainly used as food emulsifier. It is also used as solvent for spices, seasonings and food coloring. What’s more, 1,2-propanediol is used as a humidifying agent of tobacco, mildew preventive, fruit ripening preservatives, film-forming coatings additives, antifreeze and heat transfer media, etc. It is often used as a substitute for ethanol and glycerol.
In pharmaceutical industry, Propylene Glycol is commonly used as solvent in the manufacture of various types of ointment, softener, excipients, preservatives, vitamins, penicillin, etc. As Propylene Glycol has good solubility with various spices, it is also used as solvent of cosmetic and softeners, etc.
2. Preparation of 1,2-Propanediol
1,2-Propanediol can be obtaine by epoxypropane. It includes direct hydration and indirect hydration. The direct hydration is the reaction of epoxypropane and water at 150-160 °C and 0.78-0 .98 MPa. After evaporation and distillation, Propylene Glycol is obtained. The indirect hydration is the reaction of epoxypropane and water in the presence of catalyst sulfuric acid. In addition, 1,2-Propanediol also can be produced by direct catalytic oxidation from propylene. The catalyst is anhydrous tertiary butanol.
3. Structure and properties

1,2-Propanediol(CAS NO.57-55-6 ) is a clear, colorless and hygroscopic liquid. Propylene glycol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two enantiomers. The commercial product is a racemic mixture. Pure optical isomers can be obtained by hydration of optically pure propylene oxide.
The freezing point of water is depressed when mixed with propylene glycol owing to the effects of dissolution of a solute in a solvent (freezing-point depression); in general, glycols are non-corrosive, have very low volatility and very low toxicity (however, ethylene glycol is toxic to humans and many animals).
4.Potential Effects on Marine Environment
*Not likely to exist in large amounts in the air (ASTDR)

*It will break down within several days to a week in water and soil (ASTDR)

*Not expected to absorb to suspended solids (HSDB)
When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following: The 1,2-Propanediol is low toxicity. So the acute oral toxicity is very low, and large quantities are required to cause perceptible health damage in humans. In the human body, Propylene Glycol is metabolized into pyruvic acid (a normal part of the glucose-metabolism process, readily converted to energy), lactic acid (a normal acid generally abundant during digestion), acetic acid (handled by ethanol-metabolism), and propionaldehyde. So you should avoid contact with skin and eyes.


Dichloromethane, also known as DCM and methylene chloride, is a volatile organic and colorless liquid chemical with a sweet, pleasant odor like chloroform.

Dichloromethane (CAS NO.75-09-2) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, penetrating-like ether. If exposed to high temperatures , it may emit toxic chloride fumes. Vapors are narcotic in high concentrations. Used as a solvent and paint remover. It is somewhat soluble in water, subjected to slow hydrolysis which is accelerated by light. It has some kinds of uses. Solvent is the most important use of methylene chloride. Dichloromethane with the dissolving ability, low boiling point and relatively low toxicity, so it has be made as the highest frequency use in organic synthesis. It can be used as extraction solvent, mainly as the extraction of caffeine in coffee beans, besides it can be used as hops, spices oil-resin extraction solvents, pigment thinner, organic synthesis. As a solvent for resins and plastics industry is widely used in pharmaceutical, plastics and film industries.

1. Uses of Dichloromethane
DCM’s volatility and ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds makes it a useful solvent for many chemical processes. Concerns about its health effects have led to a search for alternatives in many of these applications.
The greatest use of DCM is as a paint remover. Other uses include: solvent and cleaning agent in chemical manufacture, textiles, electronics, metals and plastics, pesticides industries; blowing and cleaning agent in the urethane foam industry; fumigant for strawberries and grains, and as degreener for citrus fruits; in pharmaceuticals and as an anesthetic; in extraction of caffeine, cocoa, fats, spices and beer hops; as a heat transfer agent in refrigeration products.
2. Preparation of Dichloromethane

Dichloromethane is produced by treating either methyl chloride or methane with chlorine gas at 400–500 °C. At these temperatures, both methane and methyl chloride undergo a series of reactions producing progressively more chlorinated products.

CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl

CH3Cl + Cl2 → CH2Cl2 + HCl

CH2Cl2 + Cl2 → CHCl3 + HCl

CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HCl

The output of these processes is a mixture of methyl chloride, dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. These compounds are separated by distillation.
3. Health effects

Some people who drink water containing dichloromethane well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
This health effects language is not intended to catalog all possible health effects for dichloromethane. Rather, it is intended to inform consumers of some of the possible health effects associated with dichloromethane in drinking water when the rule was finalized.
Diammonium hydrogenphosphate is also called DAP. It is a white powder that is insoluble in alcohol, acetone and liquid ammonia but soluble in water. The substance has the chemical formula (NH4)2HPO4. In addition, its IUPAC name is diammonium hydrogen phosphate. Meanwhile, its EINECS registry number is 231-987-8 and the CAS number is 7783-28-0. Additionally, its classification code is Pharmaceutic aid.
1. Uses
Diammonium hydrogenphosphate is used as a fertilizer. When used as plant food, it temporarily increases the soil pH. In addition, it also can be used as a fire retardant. Meanwhile, it is also used for seed corrosion inhibitors, mixing agent, medium reagents. What’s more, Diammonium hydrogenphosphate can also be used as waterproof agent in paper and fabric, waterproof paint additive, etc.

DAP is also used as a yeast nutrient in winemaking and brewing mead; as an additive in some brands of cigarettes purportedly as a nicotine enhancer; to prevent afterglow in matches, in purifying sugar; as a Flux for soldering tin, copper, zinc and brass; and to control precipitation of alkali-soluble and acid-insoluble colloidal dyes on wool.
2. Preparation
Diammonium hydrogenphosphate can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid. Solid diammonium phosphate shows a dissociation pressure of ammonia as given by the following expression and equation:
(NH4)2HPO4(s) → NH3(g) + NH4H2PO4(s)   log PmmHg = -3063 / T + 175 log T + 3.3
Diammonium hydrogenphosphate commonly can be prepared by neutralization reaction that thermal phosphoric acid or extraction of phosphoric acid phosphoric acid reacts with liquid ammonia in industrial production. The former product is high purity and the latter will cost more lower.
H3PO4 + 2 NH3 → (NH4)2HPO4
You can also use wetphosphoricacid as the raw material. This reaction will need two steps of defluorination, there steps of ammoniation and pyrolyzation of triammonium phosphate:
H3PO4 + 2 NH3 → ( NH4)2HPO4

(NH4)2HPO4 + NH4OH → (NH4)3PO4 + H2O

(NH4)3HPO4.3H2O [70°C] → (NH4)2HPO4 + NH3 + 3 H2O

3. Storage
Diammonium hydrogenphosphate should be sealed and stored in cool and dry place. It should be protected from oxides and air. It is soluble in water and aqueous solution is alkaline. In addition, it can react with ammonia water to generate triammonium phosphate. It should be prohibitted to store and transport with toxic substance.
4. Safety
When using Diammonium hydrogenphosphate, you should be very careful, because it is irritant and harmful. This chemical is harmful by inhalation and if swallowed and is irritating to respiratory system and skin. In case of contact with eyes, you can rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Whenever you will contact it, please wear suitable protective clothing.
Urea is a weak base and a organic compound with the formula CH4N2O. Urea is also called as carbamide which is white crystalline powder. It is highly soluble in water and non-toxic. Urea reacts with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases, and reacts with strong reducing agents to form flammable gases. Urea should be sealed and stored in cool and dry place.
1. Uses of Urea
Urea is used as a nitrogen-release fertilizer in agriculture. In chemical industry it is a raw material for the manufacture of many important chemicals, such as: various plastics, especially the urea-formaldehyde resins; various adhesives, such as urea-formaldehyde or the urea-melamine-formaldehyde used in marine plywood ; potassium cyanate, another industrial feedstock; Urea nitrate, an explosive. And also Urea is used in topical dermatological products to promote rehydration of the skin. If covered by an occlusive dressing, 40% Urea preparations may also be used for nonsurgical debridement of nails. This Urea is also used as an earwax removal aid.
2. Physical properties about Urea



Molecular Formula:CH4N2O

CAS Registry Number:57-13-6 

Synonyms:Carbamide; Carbonyl diamide; Carbonyldiamine; Diaminomethanal; Diaminomethanone; Prespersion, 75 urea; Urea-13C; Ureacin-20; Urepearl;


HS Code:31021010

Appearance:White crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:60.05


Boiling Point:196.6°C at 760mmHg

Melting Point:131-135°C

Flash Point:72.7°C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Refractive index:n20/D 1.40

Solubility:1080 g/L (20°C) in water

Stability:Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents. Protect from moisture.

Usage:Microbiocide, fungicide.

Chemical Properties:White crystalline powder
Usage: Used for the denaturation of proteins and as a mild solubilization agent for insoluble or denatured proteins. Useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine chloride such as inclusion bodies. May be used with guanidine hydrochloride and dithiothreitrol (DTT) in the refolding of denatured proteins into their native or active form.
General Description:Solid odorless white crystals or pellets. Density 1.335 g /cc. Noncombustible.
Air & Water Reactions: Water soluble.
Reactivity Profile :Urea is a weak base. Reacts with hypochlorites to form nitrogen trichloride which explodes spontaneously in air . Same is true for phosphorus pentachloride. Urea reacts with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Reacts with strong reducing agents to form flammable gases (hydrogen). The heating of improper stoichiometric amounts of Urea and sodium nitrite lead to an explosion. Heated mixtures of oxalic acid and Urea yielded rapid evolution of gases, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia (if hot, can be explosive). Titanium tetrachloride and Urea slowly formed a complex during 6 weeks at 80°C., decomposed violently at 90°C. Urea ignites spontaneously on stirring with nitrosyl perchlorate, (due to the formation of the diazonium perchlorate). Oxalic acid and Urea react at high temperatures to form toxic and flammable ammonia and carbon monoxide gasses, and inert CO2 gas .
Health Hazard: May irritate eyes.
Fire Hazard: Behavior in Fire: Melts and decomposes, generating ammonia.
3. Safety of Urea
When you are using Urea, please be cautious about it: Urea is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. And limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. In case of contact with eyes, you should rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Moreover, you should wear suitable protective clothing to avoid contact Urea with skin and eyes.