Archives for the month of: January, 2014
Urea(CAS.NO:57-13-6), also called carbamide, is an organic chemical compound, and is essentially the waste produced by the body after metabolizing protein. Naturally, the compound is produced when the liver breaks down protein or amino acids, and ammonia; the kidneys then transfer the urea from the blood to the urine. Extra nitrogen is expelled from the body through urea, and because it is extremely soluble, it is a very efficient process. The average person excretes about 30 grams of urea a day, mostly through urine, but a small amount is also secreted in perspiration. Synthetic versions of the chemical compound can be created in liquid or solid form, and is often an ingredient found in fertilizers, animal feed, and diuretics.

The discovery by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828 that urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials was an important conceptual milestone in chemistry, as it showed for the first time that a substance previously known only as a byproduct of life could be synthesized in the laboratory without any biological starting materials, contradicting the widely held doctrine of vitalism.

Urea (also known as carbamide) is a waste product of many living organisms, and is the major organic component of human urine. This is because it is at the end of chain of reactions which break down the amino acids that make up proteins. These amino acids are metabolised and converted in the liver to ammonia, CO2, water and energy. But the ammonia is toxic to cells, and so must be excreted from the body. Aquatic creatures, such as fish, can expel the ammonia directly into the water, but land-based animals need another disposal method. So the liver converts the ammonia to a non-toxic compound, urea, which can then be safely transported in the blood to the kidneys, where it is eliminated in urine.

Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water and practically non-toxic (LD50 is 15 g/kg for rat). Dissolved in water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, the most notable one being nitrogen excretion. Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a convenient source of nitrogen. Urea is also an important raw material for the chemical industry.

Most of the manufactured compound of Urea is used in fertilizers; when nitrogen is added to urea, the compound becomes water soluble, making it a highly desired ingredient for lawn fertilizer. The synthetic version is also used commercially and industrially to produce some types of plastics, animal feed, glues, toilet bowl cleaners, dish washing machine detergents, hair coloring products, pesticides, and fungicides. Medicinally, it is used in barbiturates, dermatological products that re-hydrate the skin, and diuretics.

Urea is the diamide of carbonic acid (HNCONH; see amide; carbon dioxide). The chief nitrogenous end product of protein breakdown in mammals and some fishes, it occurs not only in urine but also in blood, bile, milk, and perspiration. It is one of the industrial chemicals produced in vast amounts. With its high nitrogen content and low price, it is a major agricultural fertilizer and animal-feed ingredient. It is also used to make urea-formaldehyde plastics (including foamed plastics; see polyurethanes), to synthesize barbiturates, as a stabilizer in explosives, and in adhesives, hydrocarbon processing, and flameproofing.

Urea can be irritating to skin, eyes, and the respiratory tract. Repeated or prolonged contact with urea in fertilizer form on the skin may cause dermatitis. High concentrations in the blood can be damaging. Ingestion of low concentrations of urea, such as are found in typical human urine, are not dangerous with additional water ingestion within a reasonable time-frame. Many animals (e.g., dogs) have a much more concentrated urine and it contains a higher urea amount than normal human urine; this can prove dangerous as a source of liquids for consumption in a life-threatening situation (such as in a desert).
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Adipic acid is a white crystalline powder. This organic compound is the most important synthetic dicarboxylic acid annually produced, mainly used as a precursor for the production of nylon. Adipic acid is also used in the chemical industry to produce other polymers, coatings, plasticizers and detergents.

Adipic acid is insoluble in water. The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Adipic acid is used to make plastics and foams and for other uses.

Based on available studies, the pure substance causes serious eye damage. Safety conditions of use must be observed for handling in industry, to avoid workers’ eye exposure.

Adipic acid is used for some specific consumer products like dish washing machine tablets. It is formulated in suitable concentrations, according to appropriate regulations, to ensure safe use of the final product in the conditions of use written on the product packaging.

Name:Adipic acid

EINECS:204-673-3

Molecular Formula:C6H10O4

CAS Registry Number:124-04-9 

InChI:InChI=1/C6H10O4/c7-5(8)3-1-2-4-6(9)10/h1-4H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)

HS Code:29171210

Appearance:White crystalline powder.

Molecular Weight:146.14

Density:1.36 g/cm3

Boiling Point:337℃

Melting Point:151-154℃(lit.)

Flash Point:196℃

Storage Temperature:Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from strong bases.

Refractive index:1.439

Solubility:1.44 g/100 mL (15℃) in water

methanol: 0.1 g/mL, clear, colorless

Stability:Stable. Substances to be avoided include ammonia, strong oxidizing agents.

Usage:Raw material for pharmaceuticals, perfume fixative.

Chemical Properties: white crystalline powder

Air & Water Reactions: Dust may form explosive mixture with air . Insoluble in water.

Health Hazard: Inhalation of vapor irritates mucous membranes of the nose and lungs, causing coughing and sneezing. Contact with liquid irritates eyes and has a pronounced drying effect on the skin; may produce dermatitis.

Fire Hazard :Behavior in Fire: Melts and may decompose to give volatile acidic vapors of valeric acid and other substances. Dust may form explosive mixture with air.

Human health:

Adipic acid is manufactured in industry in closed processes which ensure that the risk is controlled. However, workers may be exposed during (un)loading, mixing, sampling, analysis or maintenance operations and particularly in case of batch processes during the preparation and use of adipic acid in formulations. Where there is a risk of exposure, it should be kept as minimum as possible and at a safe level (strictly below exposure limits, when applied) by the use of appropriate risk management measures as suitable collective and personal protective equipment, good industrial hygiene practices and risk communication through appropriate training of workers.

Consumers may come in contact with adipic acid when using laundry and dishwashing tablets. Adipic acid is formulated in suitable concentrations to comply with requirements of the most stringent regulations for all applicable consumer uses to ensure that final products are used safely in the conditions of use written on the packaging.

Environment:

Based on its physico-chemical properties, adipic acid is water soluble and has a low potential for volatility and bioaccumulation. It is expected to partition predominantly into the aquatic compartment and not to adsorb on soil or sediment particles. Gaseous emissions in the air are not expected. Adipic acid is not persistent in the environment (readily biodegradable).

Due to these properties, an indirect exposure of humans to adipic acid via the environment is not expected.
Sodium formate, HCOONa, is the sodium salt of formic acid, HCOOH. It usually appears as a white deliquescent powder.
1. Properties
Name:Sodium formate

EINECS:205-488-0

Molecular Formula:CHNaO2

CAS Registry Number:141-53-7

InChI:InChI=1S/CH2O2.Na/c2-1-3;/h1H,(H,2,3);/q;+1/p-1

Appearance:White crystalline powder.

Molecular Weight:68.01 .

Density:1.16 g/mL at 20°C

Boiling Point:360°C

Melting Point:261°C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Solubility:H2O: 8 M at 20°C, clear, colorless

Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids. Protect from moisture.

Usage:In analytical chemical as precipitant for noble metals, buffering of strong mineral acids to higher ph.

2. Safety Information 
Hazard Codes:Xi

Risk Statements:36/37/38

Safety Statements:26-37/39-36

WGK Germany :1

RTECS:LR0350000

F: 3-9

TSCA: Yes
3. Uses

Sodium formate is used in several fabric dyeing and printing processes. It is also used as a buffering agent for strong mineral acids to increase their pH, as a food additive (E237), and as a de-iceing agent.

4. Preparation
Sodium formate can be prepared in the laboratory by neutralizing formic acid with sodium carbonate. It can also be obtained by reacting chloroform with an alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide.
CHCl3 + 4NaOH → HCOONa + 3NaCl + 2H2O

or by reacting sodium hydroxide with chloral hydrate.

C2HCl3(OH)2 + NaOH → CHCl3 + HCOONa + H2O

The latter method is, in general, preferred to the former because the low aqueous solubility of CHCl3 makes it easier to separate out from the sodium formate solution, by fractional crystallization, than the soluble NaCl would be.

For commercial use, sodium formate is produced by absorbing carbon monoxide under pressure in solid sodium hydroxide at 160 °C.

CO + NaOH → HCOONa

Sodium formate may also be created via the haloform reaction between ethanol and sodium hypochlorite in the presence of a base. This procedure is well documented for the preparation of chloroform.

5. Emergency Overview 

Sodium Formate is a white crystalline solid, which is odorless or which has a slight odor characteristic of formic acid. May cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Sodium Formate is deliquescent and will absorb moisture from the air. Sodium Formate is not combustible, however, as an organic solid, dusts of this product may create an explosion hazard in the presence of a source of ignition. Use extinguishing media appropriate for surrounding fire. Thermal decomposition of this product produces irritating vapors and toxic gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and sodium oxides). Emergency responders should wear proper personal protective equipment for the releases to which they are responding.

6. Handling Procedures 

All employees who handle this material should be trained to handle it safely. Do not breathe dust. Avoid all contact with skin and eyes. Avoid accumulation of dusts of this product. Areas in which this compound is used should be wiped down periodically so that this substance is not allowed to accumulate. Dry powders can build static electricity charges when subjected to the friction of transfer and mixing operations. Provide adequate precautions, such as electrical grounding and bonding, or inert atmospheres. Use this product only with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after handling. Sodium Formate is deliquescent and will absorb moisture from the air to form wet solid or solution.
Sodium benzoate is a sodium salt that is commonly used as a chemical preservative, but can also occur naturally in some foods. This chemical is often found in processed foods such as sodas, fruit juices, vinegar, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, dyes or industrial settings. It is often added to items like salad dressing to extend shelf life. It may also be used to cease the fermentation process in items like wine. Understanding where and how you are exposed to sodium benzoate can help you better determine how to prevent overexposure to this chemical or inadvertently creating benzene in your diet.

Sodium benzoate(CAS.NO:532-32-1) has the chemical formula NaC7H5O2; with E number E211. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. Benzoic acid occurs naturally at low levels in cranberries, prunes, greengage plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves, and apples.
Sodium benzoate is a sodium salt that occurring naturally in some foods, but is also widely used as a chemical preservative. It is used mainly as a food preservative, but is also found in cosmetics, dyes, pharmaceuticals, industrial settings. Sodium benzoate is a common ingredient in highly processed foods such as carbonated sodas, vinegar, fruit juices; in mixed ingredients like salad dressings; and to stop the fermentation process in wines. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Health Protection Branch in Canada (HPB) report that in low doses it is safe for consumption, although when combined with ascorbic acid it forms the chemical benzene, a suspected carcinogen.

Sodium benzoate combines with water to produce benzoic acid, which is the active form of the preservative. Sodium benzoate naturally occurs in low levels in fruits such as apples, plums, berries and cranberries, and in a few sweet spices, including cloves and cinnamon. When added to foods as a chemical preservative, about 75% of people can taste it. Since it is a sodium salt, it tastes salty, bitter, or sour for most people; but to others it may taste sweet. The FDA currently permits a maximum of 0.1% benzoate in foods. Soft drinks are the number one source of sodium benzoate in the diet. On its own, it is not considered toxic, and studies show no adverse health effects in humans under normal conditions.

1. Preservative

Sodium benzoate is a preservative. As a food additive, sodium benzoate has the E number E211. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments. It is also used as a preservative in medicines and cosmetics. Concentration as a preservative is limited by the FDA in the U.S. to 0.1% by weight. Sodium benzoate is also allowed as an animal food additive at up to 0.1%, according to AFCO’s official publication.

2. Pharmaceutical applications

Sodium benzoate is used as a treatment for urea cycle disorders. Recent research shows that sodium benzoate may be beneficial as an add-on therapy (1 gram/day) in schizophrenia. Total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores dropped by 21% compared to placebo.

3. Other uses

Sodium benzoate is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited. The fuel is also one of the fastest burning rocket fuels and provides a lot of thrust and smoke. It does have its downsides: there is a high danger of explosion when the fuel is sharply compressed because of the fuel’s sensitivity to impact.