Archives for the month of: October, 2013

Hydrocarbon containing atoms of elements such as bromine, chlorine, or fluorine (called halogens) from the group #17 of periodic table. Because of their stability and persistence in nature, production and use of halocarbons is restricted. Also called halocarbon.

Many organic compounds are closely related to the alkanes.  alkanes react with halogens to produce halogenated hydrocarbons, the simplest of which have a single halogen atom substituted for a hydrogen atom of the alkane. Even more closely related are the cycloalkanes, compounds in which the carbon atoms are joined in a ring, or cyclic fashion.

The reactions of alkanes with halogens produce halogenated hydrocarbons, compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon have been replaced by halogen atoms.

The replacement of only one hydrogen atom gives an alkyl halide (or haloalkane). The common names of alkyl halides consist of two parts: the name of the alkyl group plus the stem of the name of the halogen, with the ending -ide. The IUPAC system uses the name of the parent alkane with a prefix indicating the halogen substituents, preceded by number indicating the substituent’s location. The prefixes are fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-. Thus CH3CH2Cl has the common name ethyl chloride and the IUPAC name chloroethane. Alkyl halides with simple alkyl groups (one to four carbon atoms) are often called by common names. Those with a larger number of carbon atoms are usually given IUPAC names.

1)For example:

Give the common and IUPAC names for each compound.

CH3CH2CH2Br
(CH3)2CHCl

2)Solution

The alkyl group (CH3CH2CH2–) is a propyl group, and the halogen is bromine (Br). The common name is therefore propyl bromide. For the IUPAC name, the prefix for bromine (bromo) is combined with the name for a three-carbon chain (propane), preceded by a number identifying the carbon atom to which the Br atom is attached, so the IUPAC name is 1-bromopropane.

The alkyl group [(CH3)2CH–] has three carbon atoms, with a chlorine (Cl) atom attached to the middle carbon atom. The alkyl group is therefore isopropyl, and the common name of the compound is isopropyl chloride. For the IUPAC name, the Cl atom (prefix chloro-) attached to the middle (second) carbon atom of a propane chain results in 2-chloropropane.

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1,3-Dibromopropane is a halogenated hydrocarbon. When at room temperature, it is a colorless to light-brown liquid. Synthetically, it is very useful to form C3-bridged compounds such as through C-N coupling reactions.

1. Chemical and physical data

Name: 1,3-Dibromopropane

Synonyms: Trimethylene bromide

Hill Formula: C3H6Br2

Chemical formula:  Br(CH2)3Br

HS Code: 2903 39 19

EC number: 203-690-3

Molar mass: 201.88 g/mol

CAS number: 109-64-8

Solubility :1.68 g/l (30 °C)

Melting point: -34 °C

Density: 1.98 g/cm3 (20 °C)

Boiling point:: 166 – 168 °C (1013 hPa)

Vapor pressure:2.6 hPa (20 °C)

Refractive index:1.5233 (20 °C, 589 nm)

Molecular Weight: 201.8877

Appearance: colourless to slightly yellow liquid

Product Categories: Organics;DIBROMOALKANE;alpha,omega-Bifunctional Alkanes;alpha,omega-Dibromoalkanes;Monofunctional & alpha,omega-Bifunctional Alkanes

Nominal Mass: 200 Da

Average Mass: 201.8877 Da

Monoisotopic Mass: 199.88361 Da

Molar Refractivity: 31.41 cm3

Molar Volume: 104.4 cm3

Surface Tension: 36 dyne/cm

Density: 1.933 g/cm3

Flash Point: 54.4 °C

Enthalpy of Vaporization: 38.69 kJ/mol

Boiling Point: 167 °C at 760 mmHg

Vapour Pressure: 2.29 mmHg at 25°C

Storage temp: 2-8°C

Water Solubility: 1.7 g/L (30 ºC)

EINECS: 203-690-3

InChI :InChI=1/C3H6Br2/c4-2-1-3-5/h1-3H2

Smiles:C(CBr)CBr

Synonyms: AI3-28592 ; CCRIS 6711 ; EINECS 203-690-3 ; HSDB 7408 ; NSC 62663 ; Trimethylene dibromide ; alpha,gamma-Dibromopropane ; Propane, 1,3-dibromo-
2.Uses

1,3-Dibromopropane can be used as Pharmaceutical intermediates, synthetic organic intermediates.
3.Production

1,3-Dibromopropane can be prepared via the free radical addition between allyl bromide and hydrogen bromide.
4.Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal and rectal routes. Mutation data reported. Irritating and narcotic in high concentration. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Br−. Used as an herbicide. See also BROMIDES.
Hazard Codes: IrritantXiHarmfulXnDangerousN

Risk Statements: 10-22-38-51/53-36/37/38

R10: Flammable

R22: Harmful if swallowed

R51/53: Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long

R36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin

Safety Statements: 16-26-36-61-24/25

S16: Keep away from sources of ignition – No smoking

S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice

S36: Wear suitable protective clothing

S61: Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet

S24/25: Avoid contact with skin and eyes

RIDADR: UN 1993 3/PG 3
4.Transport information

Declaration (railroad and road) ADR, RID: UN 1993 Entzündbarer flüssiger Stoff, n.a.g.(1,3-DIBROMPROPAN), 3, III

Declaration (transport by sea) IMDG-Code: UN 1993 FLAMMABLE LIQUID, N.O.S.(1,3-DIBROMOPROPANE), 3, III

Declaration (transport by air) IATA-DGR:UN 1993 FLAMMABLE LIQUID, N.O.S.(1,3-DIBROMOPROPANE), 3, III

1. Chemical Properties

Name: Diethyl acetamidomalonate

Synonyms: Diethyl acetamidomatonate; Diethyl Acetaminomalonate; Acetamidomalonic acid diethyl ester; Diethylacetamidomalonate; Diethyl acetamido malonate; Acetaminomalonic Acid Diethyl Ester; ROPANEDIOIC ACID, (ACETYLAMINO)-, DIETHYL ESTER; (Acetylamino)propanedioic acid diethyl ester; (acetylamino)-propanedioicacidiethylester; 2-(Acetylamino)propanedioic acid diethyl ester; acetamido-malonicacidiethylester; Acetaminomalonicaciddiethylester; Diethyl 2-(acetylamino)malonate; PROPANEDIOIC ACID, (ACETYLAMINO)-, DIETHYL ESTER; Diethy acetamino Malonate; a-Diethyl acetamidomalonate

CAS NO: 1068-90-2

Classification Code: Skin / Eye Irritant

Molecular Formula: C9H15NO5

Molecular Weight: 217.2191

Molecular Structure:

Melting Point: 95-98 °C

ProductCategories: Pharmaceutical Intermediates ; Other Reagents ; Amino ester

Polar Surface Area: 72.91Å2

Index of Refraction: 1.447

Molar Refractivity: 50.87 cm3

Molar Volume: 190.3 cm3

Surface Tension: 37.1 dyne/cm

Density: 1.141 g/cm3

Flash Point: 145.2 °C

Enthalpy of Vaporization: 55.23 kJ/mol

Boiling Point: 311.4 °C at 760 mmHg

Vapour Pressure: 0.000565 mmHg at 25°C
2. Uses

Diethyl acetamidomalonate diethyl ester (1068-90-2) can be used in the pharmaceutical industry, also used as a tryptophan intermediate.
3. Production

Diethyl acetamidomalonate diethyl ester (1068-90-2) can be produced from diethyl malonate by nitrosation, reduction, acetylation derived.
4.Safety Profile

An eye irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also ESTERS.

Risk Statements: 36/37/38

R36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.

Safety Statements: 39-36-26

S39: Wear eye / face protection.

S36: Wear suitable protective clothing.

S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.

WGK Germany; 3

RTECS: OO0360000

HS Code: 29241900
5. Other
Chemical Stability: Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.

Conditions to Avoid: Incompatible materials.

Incompatibilities with Other Materials: Strong oxidizing agents, strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, acids, bases.

Hazardous Decomposition Products: Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Handling: Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.

Storage: Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container.

(S)-(-)-Indoline-2-carboxylic acid (CAS NO.79815-20-6) is also called as (R)-1h-indole-2-carboxylic acid ; (R)-2,3-dihydro-1h-indole-2-carboxylic acid ; (R)-(+)-2,3-dihydroindole-2-carboxylic acid ; Perindopril intermediate ; (2S)-indoline-2-carboxylic acid ; (2S)-2,3-dihydro-1h-indole-2-carboxylic acid ; (S)-(-)-indoline-2-carboxylicacid98%.
    

Name:(S)-(-)-Indoline-2-carboxylic acid

EINECS:410-860-2

Molecular Formula:C9H9NO2

CAS Registry Number:79815-20-6

The Molecular Structure of (S)-(-)-Indoline-2-carboxylic acid (CAS NO.79815-20-6):
Empirical Formula: C9H9NO2

Molecular Weight: 163.1733

Appearance: white to light yellow crystal powder

Nominal Mass: 163 Da

Average Mass: 163.1733 Da

Monoisotopic Mass: 163.063329 Da

Index of Refraction: 1.598

Molar Refractivity: 43.27 cm3

Molar Volume: 126.8 cm3

Surface Tension: 52.2 dyne/cm

Density: 1.286 g/cm3

Flash Point: 183.6 °C

Enthalpy of Vaporization: 66.26 kJ/mol

Boiling Point: 380 °C at 760 mmHg

Vapour Pressure: 1.88E-06 mmHg at 25°C

Refractive index: -116 ° (C=1, 2mol/L HCl)

Storage temp: Store at 0°C

Product Categories: PYRROLE;Indoles and derivatives;pharmacetical;chiral;PERINDOPRIL;(intermediate of perindopril);Indoles;Chiral
Compound;Asymmetric Synthesis;Chiral Catalysts, Ligands, and Reagents;Proline-Based Organocatalysts
2.Safety Profile

Hazard Codes: HarmfulXn

Risk Statements: 43-48/22-62

R43: May cause sensitization by skin contact

R48/22: Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

R62: Risk of impaired fertility

Safety Statements: 22-25-26-36/37

S22: Do not breathe dust

S25: Avoid contact with eyes

S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice

S36/37: Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves

WGK Germany: 2
3. Uses

(S)-(-)-Indoline-2-carboxylic acid  is mainly used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
4. Synthesis
(S)-(-)-Indoline-2-carboxylic acid was synthesized by use of a nitro amination approach with l-phenylalanine as chiral pool. The first step of the synthesis was nitration of l-phenylalanine, with urea nitrate (UN)/H2SO4 as nitrating reagent, to give 2,4-dinitro-l-phenylalanine in 75.7 % yield in one-pot synthesis and 69.1 % yield by step-wise nitration. Intramolecular nitro amination of 2,4-dinitro-l-phenylalanine gave (S)-6-nitro-indoline-2-carboxylic acid in 65.7 % yield and more than 99.5 % enantiomeric excess (ee). The title compound, (S)-(-)-Indoline-2-carboxylic acid, was obtained in 85.9 % yield and high ee by one-pot transformation of (S)-6-nitroindoline-2-carboxylic acid. The total synthesis consisted of three operations and gave the title compound in 42 % yield and more than 99.5 % ee.

Cytarabine for Injection USP, commonly known as ara-C, an antineoplastic for intravenous, intrathecal, or subcutaneous administration, contains sterile lyophilized cytarabine (1-β-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine). Cytarabine is an odorless, white to off-white, crystalline powder which is freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol and in chloroform. Cytarabine is a synthetic nucleoside which differs from the normal nucleosides cytidine and deoxycytidine in that the sugar moiety is arabinose rather than ribose or deoxyribose.

1.Antivirals

Cytarabine(CAS.NO:147-94-4) is to start Streptomyces culture broth , and then through a chemical synthesis of purine nucleoside antiviral drugs as a white crystalline powder , very slightly soluble in water, soluble in water, its monophosphate . Herpes simplex viruses HSV1 and HSV2, hepatitis B virus , varicella – zoster virus and cytomegalovirus DNA virus inhibition , but the smallpox virus , adenovirus, other DNA or RNA viruses , bacteria and fungi have no effect . Ara exact antiviral mechanism is not fully understood, mainly inhibit viral replication. Drugs and their metabolites inhibit the viral DNA polymerase , thereby blocking the viral DNA synthesis, and only a very small amount of penetration of the drug itself viral DNA molecule in the human body , the drug depends in part on the host antiviral immune function, no immunosuppressive drugs . In vivo intravenous administration of 75% to 87 % of the drug is quickly deoxy adenosine deaminase enzyme hypoxanthine as arabinose , antiviral activity was significantly lower than the prototype, quickly distributed in a number of tissues ; 10mg per kg of body weight administered , arabinose hypoxanthine peak plasma concentration of 3 ~ 6μ/ml, vidarabine peak plasma concentration 0.2 ~ 0.4μg/ml, arabinose hypoxanthine through the blood-brain barrier , cerebrospinal fluid drug concentrations of approximately plasma drug concentration is 1/ 3 . Day dosage from 41% to 53% in the form of arabinose hypoxanthine from urinary excretion , 1% to 3 % of the prototype drug excretion . Cytarabine for the treatment of major clinical herpes simplex virus encephalitis , also used to treat patients with immune suppression and varicella zoster infection, but CMV is invalid. Also inhibit the pharmacological activity of HBV replication . Topical medication for herpes simplex virus keratitis , even for vaccinia virus keratitis .

2.Antineoplastic

Ara also known as Yama Hill cytarabine hydrochloride, cytarabine, cytosine arabinoside , cytosine arabinoside , cytosine arabinoside , Sai Desa , Sidvance , is currently in clinical use of in the treatment of acute non- lymphoid leukemia, bone marrow cells of the most effective drugs . 1959 first synthesized , it also exists sponge . 1961 S180 sarcoma in mice and found that it inhibited leukemia L1210 . Commonly used anticancer drugs cytarabine and 6 – thioguanine , methotrexate, prednisone , vincristine, mechlorethamine , cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, imipramine hydrazone, fluorouracil and mercaptopurine in animal tests no cross-resistance to the drug resistance of pyrimidine antimetabolite antineoplastic agents, with a cell cycle-specific , the most sensitive cells in S phase by inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation interference . Cytarabine into the body via kinase phosphorylation into Ara Ara diphosphate and triphosphate , the former can strongly inhibit the synthesis of the DNA polymerase ,which can inhibit conversion of cytidine diphosphate deoxycytidine diphosphate , thereby inhibiting cellular DNA synthesis and polymerization . Of RNA and protein synthesis inhibition is very minor .

Mainly used in clinical treatment of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes and induction and maintenance of consolidation, chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic phase and malignant lymphoma , ophthalmology for the treatment of viral keratitis and conjunctivitis epidemic . Head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancer and lung cancer, but also have a certain effect ; addition , the drug for herpes simplex virus, smallpox virus propagation, vaccinia virus propagation and the body’s immune response may act as a disincentive .

Pharmacokinetics of oral absorption of the drug is less , it is very easy in the gastrointestinal tract and liver under the action of cytosine deaminase deaminase activity lost , it is not orally. By intravenous , subcutaneous , intramuscular or intrathecal injection and absorption. After intravenous injection can be widely distributed in body fluids , tissues and cells. After some moderate amount of intravenous drug penetration into the blood – brain barrier , the drug concentration in cerebrospinal fluid plasma concentration was approximately 40% . The drug in the liver, kidney and other tissues metabolism, is cytosine deaminase rapid deamination to form the inactive uracil arabinoside , in the cerebrospinal fluid , due to the low content deaminase , so its slow deamination . Intravenous administration, the half-life of α phase is 10 to 15 minutes , β -phase is 2 to 2.5 hours ; intrathecal administration, the half-life can be extended to 11 hours. Within 24 hours , given drugs, about 10 % of prototype drug , 90% to form uracil cytarabine excreted by the kidneys .

 

Cytarabine is a cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body.

1. Dosing instructions

1) Use cytarabine administered, patients should be appropriately increased fluid intake , so maintain an alkaline urine , if necessary, can be combined with allopurinol to prevent bleeding increased uric acid and uric acid nephropathy.

2) Rapid intravenous injection -induced nausea and vomiting reaction is far more serious, but less severe bone marrow suppression , patients are generally able to withstand .

3) intravenous infusion solution should be diluted to 0.5mg/ml.

4) reconstituted injection at 4 ℃ ( refrigerator ) stored for 7 days at room temperature for 24 hours only .

5) intrathecal medication, the diluent should be free of preservatives.

6) using the dose or high-dose cytarabine therapy, some patients may occur serious gastrointestinal and nervous system adverse reactions, such as gastrointestinal ulcers , gastrointestinal cystic gas , necrotizing enterocolitis, around neuropathy, brain or cerebellar dysfunction , such as personality changes, hypotonia , epilepsy , lethargy , coma , disorientation , nystagmus , dysarthria , ataxia ; still occur hemorrhagic conjunctivitis , skin rashes , hair loss, peeling , severe cardiac disease.

7) where there is a variety of serious adverse reactions, should be discontinued immediately , and immediately take effective measures to treatment. Some patients given corticosteroids may reduce the dose or high-dose cytarabine induced adverse reactions.

2. Dosage

1 ) Adult usage:

(1) acute leukemia induction therapy : often combined with other chemotherapy drugs , each 1 ~ 3mg/kg, intravenous , q 12h, once every 5 to 7 days. Repeated at intervals of 1 to 2 weeks .

(2) medium and large reduction therapy : used in refractory or relapsed acute leukemia or acute leukemia in remission after intensive treatment . The mean dose per 500 ~ 1000mg/m2, intravenous infusion of 1 to 3 hours , q12h, 2 ~ 6 day of a course of treatment. Each dose refers to the 1000 ~ 3000mg/m2, usage with the dosing regimen . Because cytarabine adverse reactions increases with the dose increased , large doses but affect its efficacy , it is now more in favor of using dosage regimens .

(3) subcutaneous injection : Each 10mg/m2, q12h, 14 ~ 21 day of a course of treatment. If the patient does not alleviate the situation allows , may be repeated after 2 to 3 weeks a course . This scheme can be used blasts myelodysplastic syndrome, low proliferative leukemia, elderly patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.

(4)  intrathecal injection : meningeal leukemia , each 25 ~ 75mg, plus dexamethasone 5mg, dissolved intrathecal injection of NS , 1 or 2 times a week , with the normal to the cerebrospinal fluid examination . Prophylaxis for every four to eight times a week .

2) Children’s usage:

Acute leukemia induction therapy , 100mg / (m2 • d), once every 5 to 7 days.

3. Adverse Reaction

1) Digestive system: common loss of appetite, nausea , vomiting , diarrhea, gastritis , stomatitis and gastrointestinal ulcers. Some patients had abnormal liver function, high bilirubin and aminotransferase . Large doses may appear obvious abnormal liver function and jaundice , can cause liver lobule central vein and venous occlusion , resulting in jaundice , hepatomegaly, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy.

2) Blood system: bone marrow suppression increases with the dose increased , the performance of white blood cells, thrombocytopenia.

3) Local reactions : pain at the infusion thrombophlebitis and mostly subsided after discontinuation , there are also other reactions itching and rash ; local ophthalmic drugs , often cause temporary burning, itching and other mild irritation, tears may also occur , foreign body sensation , conjunctival hyperemia , superficial punctate keratitis , pain, photophobia and other reactions.

4) Central nervous system : occasional discomfort , fatigue, tremors, dizziness , hallucinations, psychotic symptoms and confusion, its occurrence and dose-related , usually subside after discontinuation , there are reports of headache and encephalopathy , which is often difficult with the primary disease phase identification , occurs in the liver and kidney dysfunction .

5) Than the amount of the performance : Daily intake of cytarabine doses greater than 20mg/kg, can cause bone marrow suppression ; event than the amount of medication, need to closely monitor the blood system and liver and kidney function .

6) Other adverse reactions: common temporary alanine aminotransferase increased, occasionally serum total bilirubin . There dizziness , fever , hair loss , rash , etc., can also lead to male reproductive dysfunction . Who are allergic to the chemicals , pregnant and lactating women disabled. WBC and platelet counts decreased significantly with biliary tract disease , history of gout or urate history of kidney stones , recently received cytotoxic drugs or radiation therapy, liver and kidney dysfunction with caution.

Tamoxifen citrate is a medicine which is used in breast cancer.

Tamoxifen Citrate(CAS.NO:54965-24-1) is one of the most commonly used medications among performance enhancers but more often than not it is used for remedy rather than solution. Most who are familiar with performance enhancing largely associate the process with anabolic androgenic steroids, however Tamoxifen Citrate does not fall into this category. Commonly known as Nolvadex or Nolva, Tamoxifen Citrate generally serves two purposes for the anabolic steroid user; for on cycle side-effect prevention and more commonly for post cycle therapy (PCT) needs. Regardless of the purpose at hand Nolva is generally very well-tolerated by those who use it and this includes both men and women; however, most women will use it at a much lower dose and many women who supplement with Nolvadex will do so for more of an actual solution rather than remedy.

Tamoxifen citrate is not suitable for everyone and some people should never use it. Other people should only use it with special care. It is important that the person prescribing this medicine knows your full medical history.

Tamoxifen Citrate was first synthesized in 1962 in an effort to create a suitable Morning After pill; however, the trials were met with failure but soon after other purposes were found. It was largely understood that estrogen was a problematic hormone in those suffering from breast cancer and it was discovered Tamoxifen Citrate could be used to block estrogen from binding to the receptors; this does not reduce the amount of estrogen in the body but keeping it from binding proved to be highly beneficial.

While the medication proved to be useful in combating breast cancer, by its mode of action soon other purposes were discovered. As estrogen buildup is a common problem for many anabolic steroid users due to the aromatase effect that occurs after the administration of many steroids finding a way to prevent the hormone from binding proved to be a means to prevent such side-effects that occur due to this effect. As this is important another benefit of Tamoxifen Citrate was discovered in that it stimulates testosterone production making it a perfect remedy for PCT needs.

Many who supplement with Nolvadex while on cycle will do so in order to stave off Gynecomastia as it is highly estrogenic related. Steroids that have a high androgenic nature can often lead to this problem occurring, such as testosterone but through Tamoxifen Citrate supplementation it can be avoided. Most who supplement for this purpose will find a mere 10mg per day to be enough to stave off any problems; however, for some this will not be enough and estrogen levels must necessarily be reduced. For this individual only an aromatase inhibitor (AI) such as Arimidex or Letrozole will be sufficient and many will choose to play it safe and begin use with one of these AIs rather than leaving it to chance.

Beyond on cycle use the most common time in-which Tamoxifen Citrate is used by performance enhancers is during the PCT period; after anabolic steroid use is complete. Nolva has been shown to greatly increase testosterone stimulation in part by largely increasing Luteinizing release. Understand when anabolic androgenic steroids are used natural testosterone production is suppressed; how much suppression exists will depend on the steroids used and the total duration but suppression will occur. Once the cycle is complete in order to hang on to any of the gains made as well as maintain optimal health testosterone production must necessarily be primed for action. Most who follow proper PCT protocol will do so for approximately 3-4 weeks and for many Nolvadex is all that is needed; in-truth, many would be best served with PCT programs that included nothing but hCG and Tamaxifen Citrate. However, make no mistake, as valuable as this process is it will not return natural testosterone production back to 100% in only a few weeks but it will get you on the right track and speed the process up greatly.


1. Identification

Name:Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate

EINECS:209-544-5

Molecular Formula:C9H6N2O2

CAS Registry Number:584-84-9

Synonyms:4-Methyl-m-phenylene diisocyanate; TDI; Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; Tolyelenediisocyanate; CRESORCINOL DIISOCYANATE; 2,4-TDI; 2,4-TOLUENEDIISOCYANATE; 2,4-Tolylene diisocyanate; 2,4-DIISOCYANATOTOLUENE; 1-METHYL-1,3-PHENYLENE DIISOCYANATE; 4-METHYL-1,3-PHENYLENE DIISOCYANATE

HS Code:29291010

Appearance:Water white to pale yellow liquid or crystals with a sweet, fruity, pungent odor. Darkens on exposure to sunlight.

Molecular Weight:174.16

Density:1.225

Boiling Point:115-120℃ (10 mmHg)

Melting Point:12.5-13.5℃

Flash Point:127℃

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Refractive index:1.567-1.569

Solubility:reacts

Stability:Stable, but decomposes in the presence of moisture. Also heat and light sensitive. Readily polymerizes in contact with base. Reacts with compounds containing active hydrogen. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Corrodes some copper and aluminium alloys.

Usage:Chemical intermediate.
2. Safety Information

Hazard Codes:  T+

Risk Statements:  26-36/37/38-40-42/43-52/53

Safety Statements:  23-36/37-45-61

RIDADR:  UN 2078 6.1/PG 2

WGK Germany:  2

RTECS:  CZ6300000

F:  10-21

HazardClass:  6.1

PackingGroup:  II

HS Code:  29291010

Hazardous Substances Data: 584-84-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
3.Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate Usage And hazard
Chemical Properties: colourless to light yellow liquid
Usage: Occupational asthma is the principal cause of work-related respiratory disease in the industrial world. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) is one of the most common respiratory sensitizers leading to occupational asthma.
Air & Water Reactions: Reacts with water with the evolution of carbon dioxide and formation of insoluble polyureas that are relatively nontoxic and inert .
Reactivity Profile: Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate is explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat, flame or sparks. Undergoes potentially violent polymerization reaction with strong bases or acyl chlorides. Reacts with water to liberate carbon dioxide. Potential explosion if stored in polyethylene containers due to absorption of water through the plastic. Emits very toxic fumes of oxides of nitrogen when heated to decomposition.
Health Hazard: Can cause death. Contact with skin may cause allergic eczema. Substance is very corrosive to eyes. Chronic exposure may cause chronic lung disease. As a vapor TDI is a powerful irritant to the respiratory tract. Chronic loss of respiratory function may occur. Acute asthmatic bronchitis or frank asthma may occur. A splash in the eyes of workmen has caused keratitis and conjunctivitis. Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate causes inflammation of the skin, also chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema.
Fire Hazard: When heated to decomposition Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate emits very toxic fumes of cyanide and nitrogen oxides. Reacts violently with amines, alcohol, bases and warm water causing fire and explosion hazards. Avoid strong oxidizers, water, acids, bases, amines, etc., cause foam and splatter. Avoid heating. Hazardous polymerization may occur. Concentrated alkaline compound such as sodium hydroxide or tertiary amines may cause run-away polymerization. Slow, not hazardous polymerization may occur above 235F.

Furosemide is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in your urine.

Furosemide treats fluid retention (edema) in people with congestive heart failure, liver disease, or a kidney disorder such as nephrotic syndrome. This medication is also used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension).


1. Furosemide Chemical Properties

Name:Furosemide

EINECS:200-203-6

Molecular Formula:C12H11ClN2O5S

CAS Registry Number:54-31-9

Synonyms:5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-chloro-2-((2-furanylmethyl)amino)benzoic acid; 4-chloro-n-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid; 2-furfurylamino-4-chloro-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid

InChI:InChI=1S/C12H11ClN2O5S/c13-9-5-10(15-6-7-2-1-3-20-7)8(12(16)17)4-11(9)21(14,18)19/h1-5,15H,6H2,(H,16,17)(H2,14,18,19)

Appearance:white powder

Molecular Weight:330.74414

Density:1.606

Boiling Point:582.1 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:220℃

Flash Point:305.9 °C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Solubility:Slightly soluble in water

Stability:Stable, but light sensitive, air sensitive and hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Usage:Used as a diuretic

Merck : 4309

EPA Substance Registry System :Benzoic acid, 5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-chloro- 2-((2-furanylmethyl)amino)- (54-31-9)


2.Safety Information

Hazard Codes: T,F,Xi

Risk Statements :61-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-36/37/38

Safety Statements :7-16-36/37-45-53-36/37/39-22-36-26

RIDADR  UN :1230 3/PG 2

WGK Germany: 3

RTECS :CB2625000

Hazardous Substances Data: 54-31-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
3. Furosemide Usage And Synthesis
Chemical Properties: white to light yellow crystal powde
Usage: Used as a diuretic
General Description: Odorless white to slightly yellow crystalline powder. A diuretic drug. Almost tasteless.
Air & Water Reactions: Light sensitive. Air sensitive. Slightly soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile: Furosemide may undergo hydrolysis at sufficiently low pH. The pH of aqueous solutions should be maintained in the basic range to prevent hydrolysis. Alcohol has been shown to improve the stability of Furosemide. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents .
Fire Hazard: Flash point data for Furosemide are not available; however, Furosemide is probably combustible.
Biological Activity: Loop diuretic that inhibits the Na + /2Cl – /K + (NKCC) cotransporter. Also acts as a non-competitive antagonist at GABA A
receptors with ~ 100-fold greater selectivity for α 6-containing receptors than α 1-containing receptors.

Ethyl acrylate is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCO2CH2CH3. It is the ethyl ester of acrylic acid. It is a colourless liquid with a characteristic acrid odor. It is mainly produced for paints, textiles, and non-woven fibers. It is also a reagent in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical intermediates. The following is some chemical information about Ethyl acrylate.



1.Ethyl acrylate Chemical Properties

Name:Ethyl acrylate

EINECS:205-438-8

Molecular Formula:C5H8O2

CAS Registry Number:140-88-5

Synonyms:Acrylic acid ethyl ester; EA

InChI:InChI=1/C5H8O2/c1-3-5(6)7-4-2/h3H,1,4H2,2H3

Appearance:colourless liquid

Molecular Weight:100.12

Density:0.92

Boiling Point:99℃

Melting Point:-71℃

Flash Point:16℃

Storage Temperature:Refrigerator

Refractive index:1.405-1.407

Solubility:1.5 g/100 mL (25 oC) in water

Stability:Stable, but may polymerize upon exposure to light. Highly flammable. Keep cool. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, peroxides and other
polymerization initiators.

2.Safety Information
Hazard Codes:  F,Xn

Risk Statements:  11-20/21/22-36/37/38-43

Safety Statements:  9-16-33-36/37

RIDADR : UN 1917 3/PG 2

WGK Germany : 2

RTECS : AT0700000

F:  8

HazardClass:  3

PackingGroup:  II

Hazardous Substances Data: 140-88-5


3. Ethyl acrylate Usage And Synthesis

Chemical Properties: colourless liquid
General Description :A clear colorless liquid with an acrid odor. Flash point 60°F. May polymerize exothermically if heated or contaminated. If the
polymerization takes place inside a container, the container may rupture violently. Auto ignition temperature 721°F (383°C).Less dense than water.
Vapors heavier than air. Used to make paints and plastics.
Air & Water Reactions: Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
Use: The monomer in the manuf of water emulsion paint vehicles; in production of emulsion-based polymers used in textile and paper coatings,
leather finish resins and adhesives. Imparts flexibility to hard films.
Reactivity Profile: A flammable liquid, confirmed carcinogen. Ethyl acrylate can react vigorously with oxidizing reagents, peroxides,strong alkalis and polymerization initiators. Ethyl acrylate reacts violently with chlorosulfonic acid . When an inhibited monomer was placed in a clear glass bottle exposed to sunlight, exothermic polymerization set in and caused the bottle to burst. The use of brown glass or metal containers and increase in inhibitor concentration (to 200 ppm; tenfold) was recommended . Ethyl acrylate may polymerize when exposed to light and Ethyl acrylate is subject to slow hydrolysis. Inhibitors do not function in the absence of air. Solutions in DMSO are stable for 24 hours under normal lab conditions.
Health Hazard: May cause irritation and burns of eyes and skin. Exposure to excessive vapor concentrations can also cause drowsiness accompanied by nausea, headache, or extreme irritation of the respiratory tract.