Archives for the month of: September, 2013

Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is used in preparation of other lithium salts where use of carbonate is not practical; as a catalyst in the production of alkyd resins, in esterifications. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is also used in the production of lithium soaps, greases and sulfonates.

Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is mainly consumed for the production of lithium greases. A popular lithium grease is lithium stearate, which is a general-purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and usefulness at both high and low temperatures.

It is used as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte. It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.

How to get Lithium hydroxide monohydrate?

Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is produced in a metathesis reaction between lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide:

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3

The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.

In the laboratory, Lithium hydroxide monohydrate arises by the action of water on lithium or lithium oxide. The equations for these processes follow:

2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2

Li2O + H2O → 2 LiOH

Typically, these reactions are avoided.

Although lithium carbonate is more widely used, the hydroxide is an effective precursor to lithium salts, e.g.

LiOH + HF → LiF + H2O.



1,3-Dibromopropane is a molecule that contains three carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and two bromine atoms. It refers to any of four isomers.

1,3-Dibromopropane is a halogenated hydrocarbon. When at room temperature, it is a colorless to light-brown liquid. Synthetically, it is very useful to form C3-bridged compounds such as through C-N coupling reactions.


1,3-Dibromopropane can be prepared via the free radical addition between allyl bromide and hydrogen bromide


CAS Registry Number: 109-64-8

CAS Name: 1,3-Dibromopropane

Additional Names: a,g-dibromopropane; w,w¢-dibromopropane; trimethylene dibromide,Trimethylene Bromide

Molecular Formula: C3H6Br2

Molecular Weight: 201.89

Percent Composition: C 17.85%, H 3.00%, Br 79.16%

Line Formula: BrCH2CH2CH2Br

Properties: Colorless liquid; d425 1.9712; bp760 167° (mp -36°); nD15 1.5249. Slightly sol in water (1.68 g/l at 30°); sol in alc, ether. Upon prolonged heating trimethylene bromide dec and part of it is converted to propylene bromide (1,2-dibromopropane). Boiling with water yields trimethylene glycol.

Melting point: mp -36°

Boiling point: bp760 167°

Index of refraction: nD15 1.5249

Density: d425 1.9712

Apigenin (CAS.NO: 520-36-5), found in many plants, is a natural product belonging to the flavone class that is the aglycone of several naturally occurring glycosides. It is a yellow crystalline solid that has been used to dye wool.

Apigenin is a Bioflavonoids compound (specifically a flavone) which is found in a wide variety of plants and herbs. It is very abundant in chamomile tea, and exerts Anxiety-reducing effects when consumed in these high doses. At even higher doses, it may be sedative.

Apigenin is also a very potent anti-cancer compound. It beneficially protects against a wide variety of cancers with high selectivity for cancer cells as opposed to non-cancerous cells. It also has a very high safety threshold, and active (anti-cancer) doses can be gained through consuming a vegetable and fruit rich diet.

Just like most flavonoids,Apigenin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Perhaps apigenin can even block the formation of uric acid leading to beneficial effects in gout. it has potential to reduce the risk of cancer since it has anti-tumor activity. Apigenin also could potentially be useful in allergy conditions since it can have anti-inflammatory properties.

Apigenin is found in high amounts in several herbs including parsley, thyme, and peppermint. It is is also found in a number of other herbs, including chamomile herb, Horsetail herb, lemon balm herb, perilla herb, vervain herb, and yarrow. Red wine and tomato sauce contain this flavonoid, also.

Some of the more popular and abundant sources include chamomile tea grapefruits, onions, oranges and some spices such as parsley. and is also found in higher levels (relative to other foods) in celery, yarrow, tarragon, cilantro, foxglove, coneflower, licorice, flax, passion flower, horehound, spearmint, basil, and oregano. It is also found in red wine and beer and is an active ingredient in the memory herb Gingko Biloba.Chamomile is approximately 0.8-1.2% apigenin by weight.

In food and herbal sources, the active apigenin is found in the form of various acylated derivates and Apigenin-7-O-glucoside.

Apigenin itself is a low molecular weight (270.24) with a very high melting point (347.5) It is very insoluble in water by itself, but can become soluble in dilute potassium hydrochloride or DimethylSulfoxide (DMSO).The food borne apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, has increased water solubility via its carbohydrate containing bond.Chemicular apigenin is highly unstable, although the food bound sources are more stable in normal environments.

Tamoxifen citrate is used to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic breast cancer), to treat breast cancer in certain patients after surgery and radiation therapy, and to reduce the chances of breast cancer in high-risk patients. Most common side effects include hot flashes, nausea, leg cramps, hair thinning, or headache. A loss of sexual ability/interest may occur in men. Other less common side effects may also occur.

The recommended daily dose of Tamoxifen citrate for patients with breast cancer is 20-40 mg per day, in tablet form. Patients taking anastrozole or letrozole should not take Tamoxifen citrate as serious interactions could occur. SSRI antidepressants and cimeditdine may affect how Tamoxifen citrate works. Patients taking coumarin-type anticoagulants should be closely monitored. There may be risks to the fetus if Tamoxifen citrate is taken by pregnant women, however the benefit of the drug may warrant its use despite the potential risks. Tamoxifen citrate has been reported to inhibit lactation. It is not known whether the medication is passed through breast milk, but because of the potential risks for the fetus, women who are taking Tamoxifen citrate should not breast feed.


Hot flashes, nausea, leg cramps, muscle aches, hair thinning, or headache may occur. A loss of sexual ability/interest may occur in men. If these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor promptly.


Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.


Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: vision changes (e.g., blurred vision), eye pain, easy bruising/bleeding, mental/mood changes, swelling of ankles/feet, unusual tiredness.


Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: stomach/abdominal pain, persistent nausea/vomiting, dark urine, yellowing eyes/skin, signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat).


A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

Naringin belongs to the group of flavonoids. Pure naringin is a yellowish powder. Naringin is a conjugate of a sugar molecule with naringenin. The structure of naringin is very similar to that of hesperidin.

Naringin is a type of flavonoid, a water-soluble pigment, found in grapefruits. By itself, naringin has little nutritional value, other than being responsible for giving grapefruit its bitter flavor, and possibly enhancing one’s sense of taste. As a dietary supplement, however, naringin has a wide range of benefits.

Naringin appears to interfere with the activity of several enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown of certain nutrients in the intestines, along with many types of drugs, resulting in higher levels of those substances in the blood. As such, naringin is used to enhance the effectiveness and increase the half-life of several supplements and related substances, such as caffeine.

1.Why athletes use Naringin

Interested in saving some cash by increasing the potency and lifespan of your supplements? Look no further. Naringin does just that and more.

2.Ways that Naringin can enhance Fat Loss

Reduce hunger while potentially enhancing the flavor of foods by stimulating the taste buds

3.Ways that Naringin can enhance Longevity

Extend the life of supplemented nutrients and increase their potency

4.Potential uses for Naringin

Research indicates that Naringin may be useful in the treatment of:




*Heart failure

*Chronic venous insufficiency



Naringin is a bioflavonoid, arguably one of the most important emerging classes of nutrients. While mostly promoted for its dramatic effect on the absorption and uptake of supplements  increasing their effectiveness that’s just part of the whole story

Naringin belongs to a group of chemicals called bioflavonoids, which are colorful pigments found in plants. They were discovered by Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Albert Szent-Gyorgi, who labeled them “vitamin P” (although they were subsequently stripped of their vitamin status). Bioflavonoids belong to a larger group of phytochemicals called polyphenols. Key polyphenols include phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans. Flavonoids are the most abundant polyphenols in our diets.

The main source of naringin is pure grapefruit juice. However, many types of grapefruit juice are either blended with other juices, or use grapefruits that have low naringin levels, to help remove bitterness and improve taste. Naringin supplements are also available, and are sold in pill, liquid and capsule form.

A typical amount of naringin supported by research is 500 mg 2 times a day; however, when combined in a formula with other supplements, it’s quite common to use 50 to 100 mg per serving.

Absorption of naringin from grapefruit juice varies from 5% to 57%, depending on the individual, so supplementation is a better way to get a standardized, reliable dose.


In general, naringin should be consumed with meals or supplement formulas because whole foods or other nutrients support maximum benefits of bioflavonoids.

3.Synergists of Naringin

Naringin is used specifically because it is synergistic with many other supplements; that is, it raises blood levels of the supplements in the body and thus their overall effectiveness.

Caffeine levels and effects of caffeine in particular appear to be greatly extended by consuming naringin. Specifically, it prolongs how long caffeine remains active in the body by 31%. This is why you often see it in fat-loss products.

Flavonoids, particularly citrus bioflavonoids like naringin, are often taken with Vitamin Cto combat colds, bleeding problems, bruising, and ulcers.

4.Drugs that interact with Naringin

A recent discovery is that naringin changes the dose of many drugs by affecting their metabolism. A number of drugs that are known to be affected by naringin includecalcium channel blockers, anti-fungal agents, antibiotics, estrogen, sedatives, medications for high blood pressure, allergies, AIDS, and cholesterol-lowering drugs. For example, the body’s use of the drug cyclosprorine increases 62% when taken with grapefruit juice. Of course, this can be good news if you know what you’re doing because this would make drug use cheaper and more effective � lower dosages being needed for the same effects. But before you use naringin with drugs, be sure to consult with your health professional.

While naringin has become most popular for its synergistic effects with other supplements, especially caffeine, it’s quickly gaining ground for its other potential benefits. In particular, its ability to support healing of our tissues after intense, grueling workouts. But make no mistake, the best reason to be interested in naringin is to increase the effectiveness of the other supplements you may be taking.

Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a vasodilator and it is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 and 2C9 liver enzymes. Therefore, combining Sildenafil citrate with other vasodilators will increase the incidence of hypotension, and CYP3A4 or 2C9 inhibitors will increase the blood levels of Viagra.

Viagra is the brand name for Sildenafil citrate, and is used for treating erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Originally developed by scientists in Great Britain, it was brought onto the market by Pfizer Inc., a US pharmaceutical company. Viagra is also sold under brand name Revatio.


Sildenafil citrate’s chemical formula is C22H30N6O4S.


Sildenafil citrate works by inhibiting an enzyme called cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, that delays degradation of cGMP, which controls blood flow in the penis. It came onto the market in 1998 and has become the prime treatment for impotence (erectile dysfunction). Sildenafil citrate’s main competitors are Cialis (tadalafil) and Levitra (vardenafil).


Care should be exercised by patients that are also taking protease inhibitors for the treatment of HIV. Protease inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of Sildenafil citrate, effectively multiplying the plasma levels of Sildenafil citrate, increasing the incidence and severity of side effects. It is recommended that patients using protease inhibitors limit their use of Sildenafil citrate to no more than one 25 mg dose every 48 hours.Other drugs that interfere with the metabolism of sildenafil include erythromycin and cimetidine, both of which can also lead to prolonged plasma half life levels.

Concomitant use of Sildenafil citrate and an alpha blocker may lead to low blood pressure, but this effect does not occur if they are taken at least four hours apart.


The recommended dose of Sildenafil citrate is 25-100 mg taken 30 minutes to 4 hours before sexual activity. Sildenafil citrate increases the effects of blood pressure lowering medications. It also increases the blood pressure lowering effects of nitrates (for example, isosorbide dinitrate) that are used primarily for treating angina. Patients taking nitrates should not receive Sildenafil citrate. Sildenafil citrate should not be combined with Revatio or other PDE5 inhibitors (for example, Levitra [vardenafil], Cialis [tadalafil]). Tagamet (cimetidine), erythromycin, ketoconazole, Sporanox (itraconazole), and Posicor (mibefradil) can cause marked increases in the amount of Sildenafil citrate in the body. Patients taking these medications should be observed carefully if Sildenafil citrate is used.

Cytarabine or cytosine arabinoside (Cytosar-U or Depocyt) is a chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatment of cancers of white blood cells such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also known as Ara-C (ArabinofuranosylCytidine). It kills cancer cells by interfering with DNA synthesis.

It is called cytosine arabinoside because it combines a cytosine base with an arabinose sugar. Cytosine normally combines with a different sugar, deoxyribose, to form deoxycytidine, a component of DNA. Certain sponges, where it was originally found, use arabinoside sugars to form a different compound (not part of DNA). Cytosine arabinoside is similar enough to human cytosine deoxyribose (deoxycytidine) to be incorporated into human DNA, but different enough that it kills the cell. This mechanism is used to kill cancer cells. Cytarabine is the first of a series of cancer drugs that altered the sugar component of nucleosides. Other cancer drugs modify the base.

Cytosine arabinoside interferes with the synthesis of DNA. It is an antimetabolic agent with the chemical name of 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Its mode of action is due to its rapid conversion into cytosine arabinoside triphosphate, which damagesDNA when the cell cycle holds in the S phase (synthesis of DNA). Rapidly dividing cells, which require DNA replication for mitosis, are therefore most affected. Cytosine arabinoside also inhibits both DNA and RNA polymerases and nucleotide reductase enzymes needed for DNA synthesis.

When used as an antiviral, cytarabine functions by inhibiting deoxycytidine use.

Cytarabine is rapidly deaminated in the body into the inactive uracil derivative and therefore is often given by continuous intravenous infusion.

Cytarabine is mainly used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and in lymphomas, where it is the backbone of induction chemotherapy.

Cytarabine also possesses antiviral activity, and it has been used for the treatment of generalised herpesvirus infection. However, cytarabine is not very selective in this setting and causes bone marrow suppression and other severe side effects, so it is used mainly for the chemotherapy of hematologic cancers.

Cytarabine is also used in the study of the nervous system to control the proliferation of glial cells in cultures, the amount of glial cells having an important impact on neurons.

1.What is cytarabine?

Cytarabine is a cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body.

Cytarabine is used to treat certain types of leukemia (blood cancers). Cytarabine is also used to treat leukemia associated with meningitis.

Cytarabine will not treat an active meningitis infection that has already developed in the body.

Cytarabine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

2.What are the possible side effects of cytarabine?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Tell your caregivers at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

*fever with nausea, vomiting, and headache;

*problems with your vision or hearing;

*loss of movement in any part of your body;

*loss of bowel or bladder control;

*fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, sores in your mouth and throat;

*pale skin, feeling light-headed or short of breath, rapid heart rate, trouble concentrating;

*confusion, unusual thoughts or behavior;

*trouble standing or walking,

*seizure (convulsions);

*pain or burning when you urinate;

*feeling like you might pass out; or

*feeling very thirsty or hot, being unable to urinate, heavy sweating, or hot and dry skin.

Less serious side effects may include:

*drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, memory problems;

*constipation, diarrhea, mild nausea;

*back pain, pain in your arms or legs;

*headache; or

*trouble sleeping (insomnia).

3.What is the most important information I should know about cytarabine?

Cytarabine can cause serious side effects on your brain or central nervous system that may not be reversible. Cytarabine is usually given together with a steroid medication to help lessen these side effects. Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of using this medication.

Before you receive cytarabine, tell your doctor if you have a seizure disorder or a history of head injury or brain tumor.

Cytarabine can lower blood cells that help your body fight infections. Your blood may need to be tested often. Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Avoid activities that may increase your risk of bleeding injury. Tell your doctor at once if you develop signs of infection.

4.How is cytarabine given?

Cytarabine is given as an injection through a needle placed into a vein, under the skin, or into the space around the spinal cord. You will receive this injection in a clinic or hospital setting.

Cytarabine is usually given once every 2 to 4 weeks. Follow your doctor’s dosing instructions very carefully.

Tell your caregivers if you feel any burning, pain, or swelling around the IV needle when cytarabine is injected.

After receiving an injection in the space around your spinal cord, you will need to lie flat for at least 1 hour. You will be watched closely during this time to make sure you do not have serious side effects.

Cytarabine can lower blood cells that help your body fight infections. This can make it easier for you to bleed from an injury or get sick from being around others who are ill. Your blood may need to be tested often. Visit your doctor regularly.

Name:Pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione,11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methyl-, (6a,11b)-


Molecular Formula:C22H30O5

CAS Registry Number:83-43-2

Synonyms:Pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione,11b,17,21-trihydroxy-6a-methyl- (7CI,8CI); 11b,17,21-Trihydroxy-6a-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione; 6a-Methyl-11b,17a,21b-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione; 6a-Methylprednisolone; Besonia; Duralone; M-Prednisol; Medorol; Medralone; Medrol; Metastab; Methylprednisolone; Metilbetasone; Metrisone; NSC 19987; Prednol; Promacortine; Suprametil; Urbason; Urbasone; Wyacort; Methylphenisolone;


Appearance:white to off-white crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:374.48


Boiling Point:571.8 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:228-237°C (dec.)

Flash Point:571.8 °C at 760 mmHg

Storage Temperature:0-6°C

Refractive index:82 ° (C=1, Dioxane)

Solubility:Sparingly sol in alc, dioxane, methanol; slightly sol in acetone, chloroform; very slightly sol in ether.In water, 1.20X10+2 mg/L at 25 deg C

Usage:A glucocorticoid